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Developments Preceding the European Industrial Revolution : A 5 page survey of the major developments that lead to the European Industrial Revolution. Writer traces major religious, political and economic developments from 1100 A.D. up through the Eighteenth century. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Eurind.wps

Changes In European Social Groups, Economics, & Religions From 800-1400 AD : This brief, 3 page essay looks at changes that swept the entire cultural fabric of Europe in the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists two sources. Socecre.wps

The Reformation In Germany And In England – Role Of The Renaissance :
This 3 page essay looks at the two Reformations of England and Germany. It also reviews the role played by the Renaissance in the events. Bibliography lists three sources. Reforma.wps

Renaissance Period & Modern Contemporary Age / Compared and Contrasted : A 9 page paper examining the similarities and differences between the European Renaissance and the twentieth century world in terms of the state of the world and ideas as a means to greater human understanding, as reflected in art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Rencon.wps

Humanism’s Contribution To The Reformation : A 6 page paper discussing the role of humanistic thought in the Reformation. Many believe "humanism" to be an arrogance embodied in an attitude that reflects the 1970s attitude of the "I’m OK, you’re OK" ilk. Most of those would be incredulous to learn that humanism, far from being an arrogance of single human worth, was as a movement and attitude of believing that humans could be far more than they had been until the time toward the end of the Dark Ages. We know today that there are factions that agree only on few items aside from the basics of Christianity (i.e., Jesus is God’s Son), but today’s Christianity is largely based on the humanism that helped drive the Reformation more than 400 years ago. Bibliography lists 4 sources. MLuther.wpd

The History Of Islamic Capture Of Spain : 15 pages in length. At the time when Spain was converted to Islam, North African armies were instrumental in initiating the centuries-long Moorish epoch. Seven eleven was the year that Tarik ibn Zizad and his army of twelve thousand soldiers entered Spain. The Berber and Tangier governor arrived as guests of a Visigothic clan in order to add their support to King Roderic's impending ascension; however, when the king ultimately met his fate while in battle, he left Spain without a leader. The writer discusses the occurrences after the Islamic capture of Spain. Bibliography lists 8 sources. IslamSpn.wps

Ferdinand Of Aragon & Isabel Of Castile : This 7 page analysis looks at Spain during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel during the 15th century. Their union resulted in a unification never before seen in Spain. Bibliography list five sources. Aragon.wps

Alvar Cabeza De Vaca y Nunez : A 5 page paper on the story of Cabaza de Vaca -- a relatively unknown explorer. It tells of the tragic and exciting account of the Spain’s attempt in 1528 to colonize Florida, and also briefly talks about Cabaza's life before and after his journeys. Cabeza.wps

Assessing Three Themes From The Voyage Of Cabeza De Vaca : 5 pages in length. The writer discusses the following three themes in relation to Cabeza de Vaca's voyage: how the Spaniards and Indians viewed one another; Spaniard hatred and racism toward the Indians; and assimilating into Indian culture. Bibliography lists 4 sources. TLCdvaca.wps

St. Ignatius Loyola Examined : This 5 page research paper explores the life and spiritual journey of St. Ignatius Loyola, Spanish nobleman turned founder of the Society of Jesus Jesuit mission. Specifically discussed are the circumstances which led him to dedicate his life to God, his "Spiritual Exercises," which laid the foundation for his order known for both spirituality and education. Bibliography lists several sources. Stignat.wps

Seventeenth Century Scientific Revolution : A 6 page review of the scientific advancements in the Seventeenth Century and how these changes affect the current Twentieth Century Western World. Bibliography lists 4 sources. SciRev17.wps

1600 - 1700 / Changes In Europe : A 5 page examination of the changing attitudes of people from the seventeenth century to the eighteenth century in Europe. Discusses the quest for new answers and the willingness of people to make decisions simply based on their own needs and desires. Bibliography lists three references. Eur1718.wps

The Use of Torture in Crime and Punishment in the 16th Century : A 10 page research paper that discusses the use of torture in the power struggle that was being played out between the Catholic Church and the rising tide of Protestantism. The writer argues that it was used quite successfully by both sides. The Catholic Church used torture via the various tribunals of the Inquisition to successfully suppress even the mildest hints of disobedience to church authority, while 16th century author John Foxe used descriptions of torture against Protestant martyrs to cement the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in England as well as insuring the continuation of Protestantism within that country. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Torture.wps

Long Distance’s Increasing Importance : A 4 page paper discussing reasons for greater incidence and growing importance of long distance migration since the 16th century. There were nearly as many reasons as there were immigrants, not all of them voluntary. The paper discusses Australia as an early British penal colony; the German pioneering spirit and love of culture; and of course the shame of American slavery. The three groups are discussed in terms of their reasons for emigrating, their reception in their new country and the post-migration adaption. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Migrlong.wps

The Black Plague in England : A 5 page research paper that examines how the Black Plague affected social change in English society. The writer demonstrates that the sudden reduction of the English population by roughly one-third created a severe labor shortage. This shortage, while it greatly enhanced the value of the labor of the peasantry, also speeded up the processes of change and ultimately contributed to the decline of feudalism. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Blacplaq.wps

(The) Black Death in Europe : An 8 page paper on the social and political occurrence and consequence of the Black Death (the bubonic plague) in Europe. The writer discusses various relevant issues including the art which resulted from the devastation and even the persecution of Jews as the group supposedly responsible for bringing the plague (western civ). Bibliography included. Blackdea.wps

The Black Plague : This 5 page paper is a fictitious depiction of an artisan dying of the plague in Medieval times. Explanations of the reality of the times are clarified and documented. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Medblp.wps

The Black Death in Europe : In 6 pages the author discusses the Black Death in Europe.The Black Death was also known as the Black Plague. This plague was catastrophic to the population of Europe during the fourteenth century. The Black Death killed a great number of the population. It knew no cultural or socioeconomic boundary, killing peasant and aristocrat alike. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Blkdth.wps

Social Changes Resulting From Bubonic Plague : A 6 page paper discussing both immediate and long-lasting changes brought on by necessary shifts in custom in response to the loss of 1/3 of Europe’s population during the Black Death. The Black Plague put the entire structure of society in flux as people lived in very fear for their lives and tried to deal with life in as normal manner as possible while half cities fell all around them. Perhaps the most lasting changes arose from the necessity of letting "new blood" into established institutions such as law and medicine in order to assure their continuance. These people brought new patterns of thinking, and many of them may have never had any other opportunity to rise beyond their peasant status had the plague not made both land and position available. It was a time of the first respect for the power of labor, and it was the time of the first recorded persecution of the Jews. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Bubplag.wps

The Bubonic Plague -- Compared With The A.I.D.S. Plague : In this insightful 5 page essay, the writer discusses similarities between the Bubonic, or "Black Plague" (a.k.a. "Black Death") of the 14th century, and the modern-day A.I.D.S. crisis. Public health and social issues are taken into consideration as they relate to each of the two societies discussed. Stereotypes, discrimination, and popular fears are analyzed as well. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Bubonaid.wps

Jews During the Ottoman Empire : A 10 page paper tracing the history of the Jews and their persecution during the Ottoman Empire. Discusses the history of the Jews leading up to the Ottoman Empire to establish a background for understanding the persecution during the empire's 600 year existence. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Jewsotto.wps

Comparison Turkey with its roots in the Ottoman Empire : A 12 page research paper that examines the development of the modern Turkish state and compares this to roots as part of the Ottoman Empire. The writer concludes that Turkey will have to address its human rights abuses before it can fully realize its dream of becoming a fully modernized part of the global community. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Turkotto.wps

Medieval Times -- Are "The Dark Ages" An Appropriate Term ? : This 8 page paper looks at Medieval Times, asking whether or not the term dark ages adequately describes the historical period. The middle ages are discussed in terms of its historical place as well as its characteristics. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Dkages.wps

Medieval Judaism : A 3 page essay responding to the lot of the Jewish in the Middle Ages. The paper mentions the premier Jewish philosopher of the era, Maimonides, and a few of his positions that are tenets of Orthodox Jewish doctrine today. It glances at the fact that practicing Jews, through application, education and commitment, are generally effective at their work, regardless of what that work might be, and that the anti-Semitism of the time might have sprung more from envy than from dogmatic differences. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Jews.wps

Medieval Coinage : In this 8 page research paper, the writer examines issues and circumstances concerning the coining of money during medieval times. Economic situations are assessed and the overall impact that coining had over the centuries is determined. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Coins.wps

Teutonic Knights : A 6 page research paper that looks at the history of the Teutonic Knights, a military-religious order similar to the better known Templar or Hospitaller Orders of the middle ages. The Teutonic Knights were responsible for bringing Christianity to Eastern Europe through numerous crusades that lasted through to the fifteenth century. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Teutonic.wps

Scholasticism Of The Middle Ages : This 5 page paper looks at Scholasticism of the high Middle Ages and compares it with other religions of that era and of later time periods. The position of doubt in theology is one concept explored. Bibliography lists 5 sources Stism.wps

Medieval Monasticism : A 3 page essay examining the role of monasteries in the Middle Ages, and using Monte Cassino, founded by St. Benedictine, as the standard against which others are compared. One cited reference. Monast.wps

Importance Of The Ride & Spread Of Western Monasticism : A 5 page paper reviewing the contributions made to Western civilizations by the men and women of monastic communities from the days of early Christianity to the Reformation. It is argued that these communities, where service to God and humanity superseded personal concerns, were significant in making Christianity a worldwide religion as well as preserving much of the knowledge of ancient Graeco-Roman civilization that could have been lost during the Middle Ages. In addition, the contribution of monasticism to the understanding of egalitarian communal life, to art, music and architecture, and to scholarship is considered. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Monasticism.doc

12th Century Renaissance & Intellect : A 5 page paper discussing the cause of the intellectual changes that occurred during the renaissance period in Europe. Many people have stated that the cause of these changes was due to the education and knowledge available through the monasteries of that time, but the monasteries were limited to the texts they contained. Their exposure to the world outside of Europe was very limited. The idea that the Crusades changed the intellectual face of the Europeans is the argument given. Bibliography lists 1 source. 12cenren.wps

How The Crusades Influenced A Cultural Change In Art and Literature :
15 pages in length. The Crusades were highly influential with regard to the cultural changes in art and literature. Their contributions are noted in any number of ways, which are easily detected merely by interpreting the number of literary works and artistic designs that were prevalent during that period. There existed a certain political correctness that was associated with the manner in which the crusades influenced -- and even represented -- the art and literature that followed their lead. The writer discusses how the Crusades afforded a considerably elevated level of civilized culture as it pertained to artistic and literary styles. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Crusade1.wps

The Inquisition As A Response To Heresy : A 4 page research paper which explores the way the Church regarded heresy, and the formation of the Inquisition as a response to this problem. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Hersyinq.wps

Heretic to Witch /The Evolution of Terror : A 4 page research paper which examines how the image of the heretic evolved into that of the witch during the time of the Inquisition. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Herewitc.wps

Reasons for the Great European Witch Hunt : This 10 page report (which includes a 2 page annotated bibliography) discusses the witch hunt that took place in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Religious issues, the status of women, and the hysteria of the "common" people are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Witcreas.wps

Judaism vs. Catholicism / Before The Inquisition : An 8 page paper that posits that antisemitism was built slowly over the first millenia C.E., and that prior to the Inquisition, the theology of Judaism and Catholicism followed the same general path, meeting the same intents for the two religions. The paper shows that although the intent was the same and the timing of interpretations followed similar paths, the philosophies behind the two religions were different from the beginning. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Judocath.wps

Misogyny In the Extreme / The Age of the Witch Hunts : A 10 page analysis of Joseph Klaits’ book Servants of Satan: the Age of the Witch Hunts. The writer demonstrates that Joseph Klaits is an unusual scholar. Most historians, particularly male ones, have discounted the fact that most of the victims of the witch hunts were women. Klaits says straight out that "witch craze’s slaughter of women was the result of the spread of woman-hatred in the spiritually reformed elites and its application in the reformers’ campaigns against folk religion" (44). No additional sources cited. Klaits.wps

*Be Sure To Also Check Out Our ‘Medieval Times" Section !

The Transition From Early To High Middle Ages : A 3 page essay on a few of the points marking the transition from the early (or mid-) to the High Middle Ages. Briefly discussed are the influences of rural to urban life and the ensuing governmental changes, the rise of cultural and educational pursuits, and the new influence of the church. One cited reference. Rise.wps

Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages / Book Review : 5 page review and discussion of the book "The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages," by Robert S. Lopez. Book describes changes (mostly economic) during the Middle Ages and surrounding periods in Europe. Excellent for those studying courses relevant to the History of Western Civilization. Commrevo.wps

Demon Iconography Flourished Throughout The Art Of The Middle Ages : 11 pages in length. Numerous examples have been discovered of the influence, both artistically and ecclesiastically, of the presence of the devil in the lives of common people and saints depicted in the many carvings, sculptures, and paintings of medieval times. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Demonico.wps

The Rise of Universities In the Middle Ages : A 5 page research paper which looks at how this intrinsic part of Western civilization originated during a time in history which is thought of as the "Dark Ages." The writer points out how only a handful of the Western institutions can claim the continuous longevity of universities. Bibliography lists 5 sources. RisoUniv.wps.

Islam & The Baptism Of Europe : A 3 page essay on the relationship of the five pillars of Islam to the Baptism of Europe and the effect of Neoplatonism on the growth of both Islam and Christianity. One cited reference. Islam.wps

The European Renaissance : This 7 page paper examines the impact of the European Renaissance on the concept of an absolute monarchy in France. In addition, it discusses the resulting Baroque period and the scientific revolution that were directly attributed to the Renaissance and the turmoil caused as a result. Frenchmo.wps

Renaissance History / The Moral Philosophy of the Humanists : A 9 page paper that provides an overview of the issue of morality and man's human nature as they relate to the Humanists of Renaissance Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Renhum.wps

The Renaissance & Humanism In the Art and Music in San Marco, Venice : A 12 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of the significant features of the art and music of San Marco, Venice during the Renaissance era and considers the relationship between the art and the ideal of humanism. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Venicen.wps

Women In The Renaissance Thru The French Revolution / Voices from the SilenceAn 11 page paper on how women were subjugated in the Renaissance and started to get serious about their status during the French Revolution. The paper postulates that voices where heard throughout the 300-year period as well. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Renwomn.wps

Prostitution in the Middle Ages : A 10 page paper discussing prostitution and its evolution during the Middle Ages. Reasons women entered prostitution, what their choices were, and society’s viewpoints and condemnation are also reviewed. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Midprost.wps

Human Happiness & Passion / Montaigne To Mill : A 14 page paper that utilizes the literature of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries to represent common perspectives about the themes of human happiness, love, passion, and the human condition during varying times in European history. Descartes, Hegel, Hume, Keats, & Marx are among the many authors discussed. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Humanhap.wps

A History of Dictionaries : This 7 page paper provides an overview of the "invention" of dictionaries, their evolution over time, and their role in the development of human communication. Bibliography lists four sources. Diction.wps

History of Writing : A 10 page paper which gives an historical overview of the history of writing, beginning with the hieroglyphics and progressing to present day. Discusses such achievements as Gutenberg's printing press and the creation of punctuation. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Writing.wps

The Legacy Of The Vikings : A 4 page review of P. Sawyer's "Age of Vikings" -- a book describing the activities of Viking people. The Vikings were Nordic people including but not limited to Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, who ranged abroad during a period of dynamic Scandinavian expansion in the Middle Ages, from about the year 800 A.D. until 1100 A.D. Sawyer is particularly concerned with presenting the contributions & accomplishments of the Viking people over the centuries. No other sources cited. Vikingbk.wps

The Vikings / Villains or Heroes? : A 5 page research paper which examines whether the Vikings were primarily a constructive or a destructive force in European development. The writer shows that while the term "Viking" has been used to describe those who made brutal raids on European coastal settlements, it has also been used to describe the peaceful Scandinavian farmers, traders and craftsmen who brought beneficial skills to the European countries in which they settled. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Vikings.wps

Christopher Columbus : 4 page analytical review of "Admiral of the Ocean Sea," a book by Samuel Eliot Morison that goes into great detail about Christopher Columbus and his voyage to the "New World." No Bibliography. Chriscol.wps

Young Men and Fire / Youth, Identity & Tragedy : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the issues of youth, identification and tragedy in Norman Maclean's Young Men and Fire -- an account of 1949’s Mann Gulch fire. No additional sources cited. Maclean.wps

Dr. Martin Luther King & The Dilemma Of The American Negro / Then & Now : An 8 page essay exploring the conditions described in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?", to conditions for the African American in 1997, thirty years after the book was published. Specifically, Chapter IV is reviewed and compared to conditions of racism and opportunities in both eras. The writer offers examples and the thesis that conditions have definitely changed for the better but racism is still prevalent in the country. Two additional sources are cited. Dilemma.wps

Eurocentricism As An Obstacle To Learning True Latin-American History :
A 4 page look at issues concerning the Pre-Columbian Americas. The writer stresses that fact that civilizations covered the continent long before the arrival of the Europeans and never considered themselves to be "of the Americas." The journey of Columbus was only a "landmark" event from a Eurocentric perspective. Of particular importance in this essay is that we cannot possibly attempt to understand the diversified culture of Pre-Colombians, Native Indians, and so forth-- because most records were destroyed by the arriving Europeans--who re-wrote history from their own perspective. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Precolum.wps

Influence of Military Revolution in the Rise of Nation-States : A 4 page research paper which examines the rise of France, Russia and Prussia as strong nations towards the end of the seventeenth century. The writer argues that this was due to a "military revolution" in which the military buildup of each nation contributed significantly to its rise. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Milirev.wps

Pope Gregory VII : An 10 page paper on Pope Gregory VII (papacy 1073-1084). This paper presents a history of his political dealings and philosophies under the precept of his visions which are: that the church should control the government and that an army of Christian Knights should go forth and ensure, at whatever cost, the conversion of all humanity to Catholicism. He did not instigate the Crusades in his time, but he fathered the idea and it was carried out beginning ten years after his death. The paper presents in detail his political dealings with King Henry IV under his precept that the church should rule over kings and lords. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Gregory.wps

The Foundation of Early Modern Europe 1460-1559 : A 3 page paper describing key events occurring during this time period. The writer details the accomplishments of the Renaissance artists and describes the political structure of Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. No Bibliography. Europe.wps

Family Life During the Middle Ages : A 6 page research paper focusing on the family, but specifically on the involvement of the church and castle within that family. The writer describes the way of life for both the upper and lower classes, and relevant information regarding this time period. Middleag.wps

The Role of Minstrels During the Middle Ages: A complete 5 page overview of the varying roles that minstrels played during the Middle Ages. The focus of the discussion is upon different types of music, instrumentation, lyrics, Gregorian chants, etc;-- Some mention of jugglers, fiddlers, dancers, and jesters exists in the body of the paper as well. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Minsrpt.wps

Agriculture in the Middle Ages : A 5 page piece on the communities that established agriculture in the middle ages, the types of farming technology used, and the inner workings of the community hierarchy as it relates to farming. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Medagri.wps

Importance of the Reformation in Europe : A 5 page research paper on the effect of the Protestant Reformation on Europe in the Sixteenth century. The writer details how each country reacted politically and socially. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Reform.wps

Women & Christian Witch Hunts During The Reformation : During the Reformation era, persecution of women whom the Catholic Church perceived to be "witches" was at an all-time high. This 12 page paper examines sociopolitical issues from that time as well as specific theological views on witchery and witchcraft. It is argued that fear and ignorance towards women (i.e., "the transformation of the witch from wanton woman to bad wife") led to much of the scare and confusion. A final section also compares the persecution of women as witches during the Reformation with that of Jewish people during the same period. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Witchcra.wps

The Decline Of Witch Hunts / End Of A Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

The Decline of the Witch Hunts / The End Of The Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

Renaissance -- Groundwork Of The Western World : A 6 page paper discussing the Renaissance and its differences and similarities to contemporary society. The writer briefly examines science, culture, politics, philosophy, and other key aspects of the culture. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Westworl.wps

Galileo's Letter to the Dutchess : 5 page analytical review of an infamous letter from Galileo to the Dutchess in his own defense (many accused him of disrespecting principles set forth in the bible). Please send e-mail to request more information. No Bibliography. Galileo.wps

Galileo Galilei - His Impact On Our Lives Today : A 7 page paper on the Renaissance mathematician, scientist and inventor which examines his legacy to us as we live in a modern world influenced by the scientific perspectives and methods he espoused during his life. Current applications of discoveries, inventions, and philosophy of science pioneered by Galileo in a wider variety of fields are discussed. Bibliography list 17 Sources. Galpap.wps

Galileo Galelei and the Heliocentric Model : 10 pages in length. A discussion of the life and works of Galileo and the religious controversy that surrounded his heliocentric model. Galileo was among the first to suggest that the planets revolved around the sun and not around the Earth. The specific reason and issues surrounding his condemnation are examined. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Galile2.wps

Turmoil Created By The Heliocentric Theory : A 9 page history of the turmoil created by the revelation of the heliocentric theory by Copernicus, Keppler and Galileo in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bibliography lists nine sources. Earthmov.wps

The Gothic Cathedrals : 15 pages on the Gothic cathedral movement between 1100 - 1500 a.d. in Europe. Divides into centuries. Describes Gothic architecture, changes and developments for each time period. Includes descriptions of major cathedrals for each century. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Gothicca.wps

Westminster Abbey of London – A Gothic Architectural Ideal : This 10 page paper examines Gothic architecture, its attributes and characteristics, as well as the historical context in which it evolved. Westminster Abbey is the specific building examined. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Abbey.wps

Religious Symbolism In The Architecture Of Westminster Abbey : A 10 page essay examining the ways in which the Abbey plays a significant role both in the religious and political consciousness of the England. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Westabb.wps

The History of Traffic Law : A 4 page paper documenting the origins of traffic law in Western Civilization. The writer provides an overview of the basic history from thousands of years ago to the present (literally from chariots to automobiles !) behind traffic laws and the progression from the origin to the need for laws in the present day. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Lawtraff.wps

Isaac Newton vs. William Blake : An 11 page discussion of the move from the Romantic into the Modern World (transitions from Romanticism to Realism) with a comparison & contrast of Sir Isaac Newton and William Blake complemented by a discussion their differences and similarities. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Blakenew.wps

Origins of the Santa Claus Legend : A 10 page paper discussing the history behind the legend of Santa Claus and the traditions accepted in American culture today. The writer attempts to put into perspective the life of Nicholas of Myra and the good deeds that brought him to fame. Nicholas' became legendary after committing a number of acts of kindness, including destroying the temple of Artemis in Patara. Critics argue that Nicholas' was not a humanitarian, but a religious zealot. The writer attempts to answer this charge, while also presenting the legend's importance in European and American traditions. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Claus.wps

Leonardo DaVinci : A 10 page overview of Leonardo DaVinci's life & work. Bibliography lists 7 sources. End notes. Davinci.wps

Saint Gregory of Nyssa : This 7 page paper explores this historical figure's life as well as his contributions to theology. St. Gregory believed that stability is perfection and that alteration is not good; thus it was inevitable that humankind "fell" from perfection and needed to return to a static state of existence that they so admired.Bibliography lists 8 sources. Nyssa.wps

Vlad Tepes : A 5 page paper on the man most often noted as the original Dracula. Most of the paper is a general description of his life and times, with the end of the paper giving a brief analysis of what can be inferred from his life. Bibliography included. Vladtepe.wps

Luther and Erasmus on Sin and Salvation: A 5 page research paper on two great figures of the Reformation and their religious views. The writer details theories of the sacraments and whether faith or works were primary to salvation. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Erasmus.doc

Film Review / The Return of Martin Guerre and the Sixteenth Century: A 5 page essay on the movie of the same name and what it shows about life in the period . The writer details the place of women, social mobility, changing rights, and facets of everyday life. No bibliography. Guerre.wps

Nostradamus / Life & Works : A 3 page look at the life of Michel de Nostradamus,
the "man who saw tomorrow," his work in saving victims of the Plague, his oath of secrecy, and some of the true predictions he is believed to have made about our own present and future. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Nostrada.wps

The Social Structure of Portugal as Reflected in the Work of Eša de Queiroz :
A 6 page paper primarily dealing with the social history of Portugal. It discusses how little Portugal changed between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, and touches on the work of realist writer Eša de Queiroz, who attempted to address Portugal’s social backwardness. No sources. Queiroz.wps

Othello / In The Tradition Of The Renaissance : A 3 page essay on the play "Othello" and how it related both to Shakespeare himself and to the Renaissance period. Examples of themes introduced in the story are used to illustrate how Othello was both a hero and outsider... different, yet acceptable, -- and thus, an exemplary figure from Renaissance literature. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Othshake.wps

Othello & Renaissance Humanism : A 3 page essay, -- using quotes from the original play-- which describes Shakespeare's "Othello" as a work typical of the Renaissance's emphasis on humanism. The writer discusses the development of Othello's character and the underlying themes of outsider prejudice which run throughout the story. No Bibliography. Othelrel.wps

Portrayal of Women in European Paintings : A 5 page research paper exploring how women are portrayed in paintings. The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Artfemi2.wps

Human Nature in Renaissance Art : A 20 page paper describing the view of human nature on renaissance art. The writer describes the Renaissance belief in humanism and its effects on the view of human nature and how this is portrayed in art of the time. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Renaissat.wps

Everything Baroque : A 5 page overview of the power contrasts developed because of the extended world view during the Baroque period. These contrasts resulted in changes in theology, politics and intellectual thought, which in turn led to different views in economic, social and technological processes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Evbaroq.wps

Prostitution / A Cross-Cultural History & Analysis : A 5 page paper on this history of "the world's oldest profession"-- prostitution. The writer discusses the shape and form that prostitution has taken throughout history with respect to individual cultures and societies such as the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Church in the Middle Ages, and more recent eras as well. The role of law, societal opposition, and venereal disease is stressed with regard to prostitution in more recent times. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Prosthis.wps

The Colonial Capitals Of Goa & Batavia : A 7 page paper comparing the Dutch and Portuguese colonial capitals of Goa and Batavia. Issues concerning trade and imperialism are explored in considerable detail. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Goaand.wps

Robert C. Lamm’s "Humanities In Western Culture" : This 15 page report examines the theories and examples presented in Lamm’s book, while also reviewing some of the most fundamental aspects of western culturalism and its role in the development of humankind throughout the world. Bibliography lists a dozen sources. Lamm.wps

Trip to England : London is so often associated with fog and blustery weather that it seems amazing that it would be a place for tourists. This 19 page paper explores three aspects of the English culture: the transportation system, family life within the subculture of Rastafarians in Brixton and the relationship between historic landmarks in London and present day tradition and use. Bibliography lists 8 sources. KTtripb.wps

General Overview of Culture : A 10 page research paper that gives a brief summation of the elements and systems that are common to all cultures. The writer demonstrates that while all cultures have certain common features, they are also remarkably diverse, and it is through understanding these differences and similarities that intercultural understanding will be achieved. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Cultview.wps

*Be Sure To Check Out All of the Literature & Music Sections For More Western Civ. papers !

*Papers On Europe From 1700 -
Present Can Be Found In The MODERN EUROPE Section !

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