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Europe (1700 - 1899)

England & The Corn Laws : An 8 page paper that describes the history of the Corn Laws in England and the impact that these had on the poor. Also offered for consideration is the reason behind the popularity of these laws with Parliament and
the effects that Corn Laws has on social and political structures during different eras in British history. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Cornlaws.wps

British Foreign Policy / 1848 - 1871 : This is a 5 page paper that examines the theories and practices of foreign policy in Great Britain from 1848 to 1871. It actually begins with a brief look at events leading to the political atmosphere of the time specified and then delves in depth into the concept of Balance of Power and Palmerstonian principles. There are brief descriptions of Lord John Russell and Benjamin Disraeli, along with their political perspectives. It concludes by citing specific negative consequences of the above policies. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Britfp.wps

Queen Victoria / The Fascination Continues : A 4 page paper discussing Queen Victoria and the endless fascination with her. The writer outlines Victoria's life, including some interesting but perhaps not widely known "quirks." Bibliography lists 4 sources. Victoria.wps

The Development Of The Modern Era / 1870 To 1920 : A 5 page research paper on how the Victorian era of the late nineteenth century evolved by 1920 into the modern era. The writer addresses the effects of the Industrial Revolution, but also how this instigated sociological change. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Devmoden.wps

E.J. Hobsbawm’s "Industry & Empire" : In his book Industry and Empire, Eric J. Hobsbawm provides a comprehensive overview of the economic history of the British empire. It is Hobsbawm’s contention, though, that even as the conclusion of the Victorian era asserted Great Britain as one of the world’s most significant economic powers, the empire itself was beginning a fundamental decline. This 6 page paper considers the nature of this argument and the support provide in Hobsbawm’s book. No additional sources cited. Hobsbawm.wps

Winston Churchill & Empire : A 15 page research essay exploring Churchill’s protectionist desire to maintain the British Empire at all costs, even when this included forging a permanent alliance with its old enemy, the United States. Explored briefly is the extent of the empire, a historiography of some of Churchill’s attempts at maintaining the empire, and the reasons behind his ultimate failure. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Cnchurch.wps

The Decline of the British Empire : A 5 page research paper which concentrates on the work of E.J. Hobsbawm in regards to why the British Empire declined after being the leading nation in the Industrial Revolution. The writer discusses Hobsbawm's conclusion that it was due to the fact that Britain clung to obsolete factories and obsolete technology. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Britdec.wps

The Opium Wars : A 6 page paper discussing the causes and results of the two Opium Wars (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) between China and Britain. In 300 years of trade with China, Britain had developed a thirst for China’s tea as well as appetites for Chinese silk and porcelain, but pre-industrial China found very little to desire from Britain’s offerings. To ease the resulting tremendous trade deficit, Britain began growing opium in its colony India and insisted that China allow it to enter their country for use by their people. China declined the affront to their national sovereignty, lost Hong Kong to Britain, and later lost all right to restrict the opium trade within their borders. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Opwar.wps

Standard Of Living In The Industrial Revolution : A 5 page paper concentrating on the Industrial Revolution of Europe, primarily in Great Britain. The newly wealthy and growing middle class made trade prosperous while the working class continued to suffer, but positive social changes did eventually happen as people of reason insisted that all had responsibility for the millions caught in the trap of industrial work they could not escape. The limit of work hours to no more than ten in a day allowed the reacquaintance of families and even allow many children to spend their days in school, rather than in a lung-threatening factory. Bibliography lists 9 sources. IndusRel.wps

Working Class Incorporation : A system of distinction by class has existed in England for the entirety of their history. The issue of the integration of the working class into a system compatible with the design of democratic, capitalist society became significant during the Victorian era with the transition of economic structure from a feudal economy to an industrial economy. This is an 8 page paper that explores the process of transition in terms of the changes in the working class order. The Palestinian Arab society and the socio-economic structure in Ghana are used as models for comparison. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Workincl.wps

Neoclassicism & The Development Of The Asylum : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the history of England as it reflects the neoclassism of the 17th and 18th centuries and correlates this to the development of England's earliest asylum. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Neoasyl.wps

Elizabeth Mallet & The Daily Courant : An 8 page proposal for a research study that considers the role of Elizabeth Mallet in the founding of the Daily Courant, England’s first daily newspaper, and evaluates the gender-based biases that have resulted in her subjugation in history to later publisher Samuel Buckley and the use of the pseudonym Edward Mallet in reviews of the history of her era. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Courant.wps

British Poor Laws & Social Welfare : A 5 page paper that discusses the 1834 Poor Law Reform in England and considers it as a precursor for social welfare. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Poorlaw.wps

Sports & Leisure In Victorian-Era Britain : A 9 page research paper investigating the development of leisure and sports activities among the working class in Britain towards the end of the Victorian era. Leisure activities had to meet very stringent ethical ideals by which the working class lives. Many games played in rural regions became national pastimes and most still exist today. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Victleis.wps

The Boer War : A 20 page research paper on the history, causes, and ramifications of the Boer War. Bibliography lists more than a dozen sources. Boerwar.wps

The Industrial Revolution In Great Britain : A 7 page research paper that explores the ways in which the Industrial Revolution impacted society as a whole, and specifically on such areas of child labor, the formation of unions, and changes to families. The writer demonstrates how the Industrial Revolution changed the model upon which society is based and thus impacted even the smallest details of modern life. Bibliography lists 7 sources. IndBrit.wps

The Effects of the English Industrial Revolution On Family and Lifestyle : A 5 page paper discussing how family life and the structure of society changed in England as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Bibliography lists five sources. Famrev.wps

Child Labor During The British Industrial Revolution : A 5 page paper that discusses technologies leading to Industrial Revolution, parental/household aspects of why children were sent to the factories, factory conditions & statistics, and reformists and resolution. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Chillabo.doc

Causes & Impact of the British Industrial Revolution : A 5 page research paper which focuses on the work of historian E.J. Hobsbawm and his book Industry and Empire, in explaining the reasons why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain toward the end of the eighteenth century. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Impbrit.wps

The Industrial Revolution In Europe : In 8 pages, the author discusses how Europe became the forerunner of industrialization. The industrialization of Europe occurred long before that of North America. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Indures.wps

The Origins Of The Royal Botanic Garden – Kew Garden : Why was Kew Gardens created and when? Who were its designers and what did they hope to accomplish by creating the Gardens? How is Kew Gardens unique and why is it one of the world’s leading botanical gardens? Each of these questions are addressed in an 8 page research paper. Bibliography lists six sources. Kewgard.wps

E.P. Thompson's "The Making Of The English Working Class" : 5 pages in length. A thorough analysis in which the writer offers descriptions of how the advent of mechanization impacted the nature of the society and the detrimental effects it had on much of the population. Specifically, the effect of the power loom is discussed. No additional sources cited. WorkingCl.wps

The Potato Famine : The famine that gripped Ireland from 1845 to 1847 was known as the 'potato famine' due to the belief that its immediate cause was the almost complete failure of the potato crop. It is estimated that two hundred thousand people died as a direct result of the famine. This 8 page paper explores the reasons for the Famine and the extensive loss of life associated with it. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Potato.wps

James Boswell’s "The Life of Johnson" / Greatest Biography Ever Written: A 5 page review of the attributes of James Boswell's "The Life of Johnson". Explores why it is noted as the best biography ever written in the English language. Bibliography lists three sources. Bsjohn.wps

Baudelaire and William Morris / 19th Century European Socio-Politics :
An 11 page paper that presents the works of these two writers within the political and social context of 19th century France and England. This paper demonstrates that through the social and political issues of the day, both of these authors embraced a socialist perspective, represented within their writing. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Baudelai.wps

Louis XVI (1754-1793) : A 5 page overview of the life of Louis XVI the last king of ancient regime France. Gives a brief background of Louis VVI and discusses his attempts at regaining economic, political and social control of France and his inability to do so. Discusses the overthrow of the monarchy and the fall of Louis XVI. Bibliography lists four sources. Luxvi.wps

Louis XVI : A 9 page overview of the reign of the French King Louis XVI. Discusses his role in the American Revolution and the French Revolution. Concludes that for the most part he was ineffective and did little overall to promote a more equal lifestyle for the three classes in France. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Louisxvi.wps

*For Papers On Kings Before Louis XVI, Please Jump To Our History Of Western Civilization Section !

The French Revolution: In 7 pages, the author discusses the years of the French Revolution and how the France of 1789 was different from the France of 1815. Bibliography lists 9 sources.Thefr.wps

Reign of Terror & The Revolutionary War in France (1789) : This 5 page essay discusses the infamous Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. The author proposes that the Reign of Terror was inevitable. The thrust of the Revolution made this so. The juxtaposition of the people resulted in the slaughter of many. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Reigno.wps

French Revolution And Romantic Age : In 5 pages the author discusses the French Revolution and the Romantic Age. The French Revolution brought about changes in religion, population, and society. All of these had different impacts on the Romantic Age, which began at the same time as the French Revolution. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Agerevof.wps

Did The American Revolution Help Spur The French Revolution ? :
A 14 page comparison & contrast research paper citing the causes, actions, and results of each of these historic revolutions. The writer concludes that each war was fought for obviously different reasons and in markedly different ways. Nevertheless, the American Revolution did have some influence upon the French Revolution even though the latter would have occurred eventually anyway. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Frenamer.wps

The French & Russian Revolutions : A 5 page examination of the factors which cause revolutions with a comparison of the stimuli which caused the French and Russian Revolutions and their outcomes. Bibliography lists six sources. Charfa.wps

Committee Of Public Safety / Danton's Significance : 15 pages in length. Georges Jacques Danton had great significance in the French Revolution's Committee of Public Safety. His outstanding leadership afforded him the opportunity to lead his followers and influence opponents. Danton possessed many attributes that aided in his ability as leader, some of which were charismatic and forceful in nature and others that were physical and energetic. One major advantage he had over all other commanders of his time was his extraordinary talent for public speaking; this feature alone was, perhaps, the most crucial to his significance in the Committee of Public Safety. The writer discusses Danton's significance as it relates to the Committee of Public Safety. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Danton.wps

Hibbert's "Days of the French Revolution / Book Review" : A 5 page review of Christopher Hibbert's "Days of the French Revolution" -- a book detailing the socio-political events surrounding the conflict of 1789. The primary source is cited in bibliography. Frenrev2.wps

French Declarations of the Rights of Man, Woman, & the Citizen Analyzed:A 1 page paper which compares the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen with its 1791 feminist update, The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen, written by Marie Olympe de Gouges. Frenchd.wps

Women In The Renaissance Thru The French Revolution / Voices from the Silence : An 11 page paper on how women were subjegated in the Renaissance and started to get serious about their status during the French Revolution. The paper postulates that voices where heard throughout the 300-year period as well. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Renwomn.wps

The French Revolution of 1848 : 20 pages in length. An in-depth sociopolitical analysis of the causal factors behind the (second) French Revolution of 1848. Some comparisons are made between this incident and the (first) Revolution of 1789. Many scholarly `opinions are incorporated. Bibliography lists 15+ sources. Frenrevo.wps

Baron de Montesquieu / "Spirit of Laws" & "Persian Letters" in Liberal Society : A 9 page research paper on Montesquieu’s contribution to liberal governments, with particular focus on the U.S. (present) and England (past). The writer makes a close reading of several of the passages in the laws which relate directly to the formation of the U.S., discrepancies between Montesquieu’s vision and the lasting effects of both. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Baronm.wps

Amin and Robespierre - Villains Or Heroes ? : A 5 page research paper which explores the differences between these two instigators of a "reign of terror" on their respective countries. The writer demonstrates how Robespierre’s motivations were markedly different from those of Amin’s although the actions of both men were equally brutal and bloody. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Aminrob.wps

Napoleon / Military Leader Extraordinaire : A 5 page paper discussing the military genius of Napoleon. The writer asserts that Napoleon was the greatest military leader and strategist of modern times. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Napoleon.wps

Napoleon / Was He Great? A 5 page essay on this question. The writer posits that Napoleon was not a great man. Much like Hitler, his goal was to control Europe and to annihilate anyone who disagreed with his quest. However, as Hitler was revered, Napoleon was despised. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Napgreat.wps

Napoleon Bonaparte / Emperor Of France : A 10 page research paper that traces Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power from a shaky beginning to becoming the military genius he is credited to be. The essay reviews some of the major battles that he won and lost, his reorganization of France and of a great part of Europe, his two exiles and his death. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Napemp.wps

The Career Of Napoleon Bonaparte : A 4 page paper discussing the career of Napoleon Bonaparte. The writer is concerned with assessing whether or not Napoleon was a "Hitler-like" figure. Bibliography included. Carnap.wps

The Life & Reign Of Napoleon III : 15 pages in length. Includes an examination of Napoleon’s parentage, his accomplishments and his defeats.The paper is broken down into nine sections: Circumstances of Birth, Pursuit of the Throne, 1849 Overthrow of the Rome Republic, 1854 Crimean War, 1859 Attempt to Drive Austria From Italy, 1863 Polish Revolt Against Russia, 1864 Seating of Maximillian as Emporer of Mexico, The Second French Empire, and The Fall of Napoleon III. The bibliography includes eleven primary and secondary sources. Nap.wps

John Bierman’s "Napoleon III & His Carnival Empire" : A 5 page review of the book by John Bierman. Concentrates on the author’s writing style. No additional sources cited. Napcrit.wps

Napoleon Could Not Have Won The Russian Campaign : An 8 page paper positing that Napoleon had no chance of winning the campaign. Arguments are based on William Fuller, Jr's. "backwardness" theory of Kuturov's campaign, which included tactics that Napoleon was unprepared, strategically, to fight, or even interpret. Fuller's theories and Kuturov's tactics and strategies are argued successfully against von Clausewitz and Sun Tzu strategy and tactic theories. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Naporuss.wps

Napoleon & The French Revolution / Impact on the Jewish People :
A 5 page examination of the impact of Napoleon and the French Revolution on the Jewish people. Concludes that although much of progress which was made in terms of Jewish civil rights was undermined after Napoleon’s fall, great progress can be attributed to both Napoleon and the Revolution. Bibliography lists 5 sources. NapolJew.wps

Hitler vs. Napoleon : An 8 page comparison of their leadership styles, based on the idea of abuse as a power base. The writer posits that Hitler learned from his powerful position how to build up the masses sense of their own selves, while Napoleon became more and more ostracized by the masses because of his inability to "share" his power. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Hitlnapo.wps

Alexis and Herve Tocqueville / Contrasts and Comparisons : An 11 page paper exploring the writings of father and son Alexis de Tocqueville and Herve de Tocqueville regarding the French Revolution. Bibliography lists five sources. Tocque2.wps

France / Rich Provinces & Great Towns Shall Be In Your Power . . ." :
A 5 page paper discussing France at the turn of the 19th century. Topics include why the first republic did not succeed, the commands he was given, and how he ultimately became emperor in 1804. Bibliography lists four sources. Richp.wps

French Colonial Policy / The Berbers vs. The Arabs : This 15 page paper discusses French colonial policy as applied toward the Berbers of Morocco and compared to the policy France adopted relating to the Arabs. The report includes a brief history of the Berbers, examples of the French attitude regarding the Berbers, and French and Arab relations. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Berber.wps

The Decline of the Witch Hunts / The End Of The Nightmare :
A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

Early Nineteenth Century Liberalism : This 6 page paper defines and provides an overview of liberalism in Europe during the early nineteenth century. The rising middle class is also discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources. 19lib.wps

The History of Weapons : A 9 page paper that relates the history of weapons creations and development in the 19th century to three major points in history--the American Civil War, the Napoleonic Wars, and the Industrial Revolution. The author suggests that these historical points effected the creation of different types of weapons and that the increased demand and increased technologies of this era pushed weapons inventors into the creative process, with a number of major results. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Weapons.wps

The Basque Battle for Autonomy : A 25 page paper arguing the thesis that the Basques are still waging an uphill battle for autonomy, desired since 711 A.D., and nationalism formally requested in the 1980s. The paper is divided into sections on Basque origins; social formation and politics leading to the 19th Century; 19th Century, Franco, and the development of the ETA; recent political actions of the separatists and government (1970s-1988); and current developments. Bibliography lists 20 sources. Basques.wps

Alfred Nobel and The Invention Of Nitroglycerin : A 7 page paper that recounts the history and effects of Alfred Nobel's trials with nitroglycerin. Contrary to popular belief, Nobel did not invent nitroglycerin, but his invention of dynamite, its first usable form, was a significant breakthrough for the scientific community as well as industrialization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nobel.wps

J.W. von Goethe / Works and Contributions To German Theater : A research paper of 6 pages, highlighting some of Goethe’s contributions to the German theatre. His scientific investigations are given some discussion, and his literary talents that included drama, poetry, novel fiction and autobiography are mentioned. The paper, though, focuses on his drama and the setting of his eighteenth-century times. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Goethe.wps

 Wilhelm von Humboldt : A 6 page paper outlining the life and contributions of Wilhelm von Humboldt, brother of the famous scientist Alexander von Humboldt. Details concerning the earlylife and work of both men are included. Bibliography lists five sources. Homboldt.wps

Comparison Turkey with its roots in the Ottoman Empire : A 12 page research paper that examines the development of the modern Turkish state and compares this to roots as part of the Ottoman Empire. The writer concludes that Turkey will have to address its human rights abuses before it can fully realize its dream of becoming a fully modernized part of the global community. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Turkotto.wps

Prince Otto von Bismarck : An 8 page paper that explores the rise and fall of Prince Bismarck. He was an excellent statesman who was able to manipulate his Parliament many times and acted a liaison between the king and the parliament. Credited with the "gap theory," Bismarck which asserted that in times of conflict the King's will would always rule. He also provoked wars to enhance the power of his country and his politics changed to gain him the most favor. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Bismarck.wps

Gymnastics in 19th Century Germany : A 7 page paper that describes the significant developments in competitive gymnastics in Germany during the 1800s.
Of special consideration are the development of schooled gymnastics processes and the participation of Germany in the first Olympiad in 1896. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Germangy.wps

The Sad Story of the Maori : A 6 page paper on Anne Salmond’s Two Worlds: First Meetings Between Maori and Europeans. It gives some background on the early history of the Maoris, and will track the seeds of the tragic denigration of a proud people. Bibliography lists one source. Maori.wps

20th Century Europe

Modern European History : A 4 page paper that provides a selected overview of European history that focuses on challenges to classic liberalism, imperialism, suffrage, economic dislocation and the welfare state. This paper looks at some of the major events in the history of the last 200 years that are relative to these major considerations. Eurhist.wps

The Age Of Catastrophe : 5 pages in length. There exist several reasons why the first half of the twentieth century has been termed The Age of Catastrophe. The period between 1914 and 1945 brought much grief and heartache to the people of Europe, as it reflected a time of great concern for the safety of both Europeans and their country. Among the adverse activities that occurred during that period include two world wars, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinist Totalitarianism and the Depression. This paper will discuss how each of these entities ultimately contributed to The Age of Catastrophe. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Agecat.wps

Lawrence of Arabia : A 10 page report that examines the war record of T.E. Lawrence, better known as "Lawrence of Arabia." Since Turkey was allied with Germany during World War I, Lawrence was assigned the task of organizing various Arab tribes during World War I to fight against the Turks which occupied their country using guerilla warfare tactics. He was enormously successful and greatly aided the Allied war effort. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Lawrarab.wps

British History / Lloyd's Empire, Welfare State, Europe : A 7 page paper that discusses the effects of the Great Depression on the political and economic structure of England. Using Lloyd's book, the author presents the effects that in turn led to Great Britain's participation in World War II. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Brithist.wps

Chamberlain And The Politics Of Appeasement : A 17 page research paper that examines the appeasement policies of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, who tried to negotiate "peace in our time" with Adolph Hitler. The writer argues the standard rationalization that the appeasement policies gained Great Britain one extra year of peace in order to rearm and consolidate public opinion are false and that recent scholarship has shown that appeasement had more to do with economics, both foreign and domestic, then anything else. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Chamberl.wps

British Air Power During World War I / A Strategy Comes of Age :
An 8 page research paper which gives a thorough examination of the build-up of British avaition during the First World War. The writer demonstrates how, from a start at the beginning of the war characterized by inferior tactics, logistical support and equipment, the Royal Air Force emerged as the most powerful armed air resource in the world. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Britair.wps[

Britain’s Strength After World War II : This 5 page paper argues that Britain has not truly lost strength after the war, as many suggest, but rather experienced a perceptual shift due to a new world order and economic conditions. Several points are made, including the fact that Britain’s experience with censorship during the war actually made the country stronger. Bibliography lists 5 sources. British.wps

British Housing Law and Policies / Thatcherism and the Seeds of Change :
A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the progression of British social housing and housing policies over the past two decades, with a focus on the Thatcher government and the privatization of ownership that marked her transitional housing policies. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Brithous.wps

UK Inner City And Its Relationship To Public Policy : 12 pages in length. Inner-city life is no picnic for those who have to endure its ravages. Typically the area of society where a significantly dense population resides, this centralized section of the city is home to considerably more ills than anywhere else. It is often the oldest, poorest and most overly populated, which establishes it as a haven for crime, violence and poverty. The inner cities of the UK are no different than the inner cities anywhere else around the world in that they reflect upon society's lesser privileged. In spite of the fact that many inner city residents are fine, upstanding citizens, they are caught in an endless cycle of economic depression that prevents them from escaping. And so this cycle continues to perpetuate itself to the point that the squalor, crime and broken down living conditions represent a larger segment of society than the surrounding communities dare to admit. The writer discusses how the UK's inner cities influence public policy. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Tlcukinn.wps

Views On Early Childhood In The U.K. / Education & Labor Reform :
An 11 page research paper in which the writer provides an overview of the current perspectives on early childhood that can be derived from understanding labor and educational reforms in the U.K. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Chiluk.wps

Why Britain Annexed The Transvaal : A 10 page paper focusing on the reasons Britain annexed the Transvaal and the results of that annexation. A history is provided which demonstrates the reasons for the annexation. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Tranvaal.wps

British Foreign Policy : A 10 page paper discussing British Foreign Policy and the role of the various offices of prime minister, foreign office, foreign secretary, etc. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Britpoli.wps

Change to Commonwealth, Effects on Britain : An 8 page research paper exploring the effect of changing to commonwealth has had on British autonomy and world power. Explored briefly is the extent of the empire, how the change came about, and a longer discussion of the effects of the change from empire upon Britain and other countries, particularly India. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Cnempire.wps

The Independence Of India: A Critical Analysis : A 15 page research paper discussing the process of India’s gaining of independence from the British. This paper details and analyzes the history of India, the colonization of India by the British, the process of gaining independence from the British and the transformation since becoming independent. Special emphasis is given to the process of India’s independence, including analysis of the political, social and economic adjustments during and since India’s independence. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Indiai.wps

U.S. & Britain / Foreign Relations : The fact that the United States is an important factor in British foreign relations is argued in this 6 page paper.Several reasons for the phenomenon are explored including political and economic factors. The paper also stresses that the countries share a common history as well as similar values. The current state of the world is the focus of this 1998 paper which notes the implications of the recent Iraqi crisis and possible consequences of the euro after it is introduced. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Britus.wps

Trip to England : London is so often associated with fog and blustery weather that it seems amazing that it would be a place for tourists. This 19 page paper explores three aspects of the English culture: the transportation system, family life within the subculture of Rastafarians in Brixton and the relationship between historic landmarks in London and present day tradition and use. Bibliography lists 8 sources. KTtripb.wps

The COS Movement Analyzed : This 12 page research paper examines the COS (Charity Organization Society) movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which was particularly popular in Great Britain and America. Specifically discussed are the social Darwinism and laissez-faire attitude toward economics that created the need for "scientific charity," its Calvinist roots, its origin in Great Britain and America and subsequent impact on poverty, the efforts of such female reformers as Octavia Hill, and Josephine Shaw Lowell, and the settlement house movement popularized by Toynbee Hall in London and Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago,
and the COS legacy. Bibliography lists 14 sources. COS.wps

Child Services In England, Wales & Germany / The Impact Of Perspectives, Attitudes & Approaches On Service Development And Practice : A 10 page paper that considers the status of child services in England and Wales as compared to Germany, relating both services and social perspectives. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Chilser.wps

Home Rule’ In Ireland : A 7 page paper on Home Rule that traces the history of events leading up to Home Rule, the struggles to establish Home Rule, and a discussion of whether it was central to Irish independence or was a British expectancy. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Homerule.wps

Ireland / ‘Home Rule’ & Sentiments : A 6 page research paper on the movement in Ireland away from Home Rule for a unionized Ireland. The writer discusses the initial influences for Home Rule, the Protestant leaders in support of Home Rule and why their support finally fell apart, leading to today’s divided sentiments. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Irerule.wps

Michael Collins : A 20 page research paper that examines the life of this charismatic leader of the Irish War for Independence. Using primarily original sources, the writer demonstrates how strife between the victorious leaders of the Sinn Fein degenerated into Civil War that subsequently caused Ireland to lose one of the finest leaders that nation would ever have - Michael Collins. Extensive bibliography included. Collins.wps

The Irish Republican Army & Their Theology : A 10 page analysis of the religious underpinnings behind the IRA and its battle against oppression. The paper posits that while the political question is strong, the IRA cannot relieve itself from the religious constructs of its movement by testimony of its own members and historical facts. The question is explored from the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas and in the context of the 1970s and 1980s IRA movement. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Irishwar.doc

Shattering Silence: Gender Differences In Northern Ireland : A 5 page examination of the role of gender differences in the conflicts of Northern Ireland. Based largely on the book "Shattering Silence: Women, Nationalism, and Political Subjectivity in Northern Ireland" by Begona Aretxaga. Bibliography lists 4 sources. IrishWom.wps

"Football Hooliganism" --Violence and Abandon in UK Soccer : A 7 page paper that provides an overview of the phenomenon of soccer hooliganism and suggests some of the sociological determinants that have resulted in considerable problems in the British sports arena. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Socchool.wps

Richard Crossman / The Myths Of British Cabinet Government : A 5 page paper that provides a summary of Crossman's book on the British Cabinet system and a critical evaluation of the book. Bibliography lists no additional sources. Crossman.wps

Morris Fraser / Ireland -- Children Of Conflict : A 5 page paper that provides a summary of Fraser's book and a critical evaluation of its take on modern life in troubled regions of Northern Ireland. No additional sources cited. Fraser.wps

Ireland and the European Union, a Success Story : A 12 page research paper on how the European Union contributed to the economic, political and social transformation of Ireland. The writer addresses the EU’s financial contributions which helped Ireland build its infrastructure and train its citizens for the current job market, and how its policies effected political and social change in Ireland. Bibliography lists 13 sources. Cneuirel.wps

Ireland / Peace Process U.S. and U.K. : A 6 page research paper on the international relationships between Britain, the United States and Ireland throughout the peace process in Northern Ireland. The writer tracks the stumbling blocks to peace and the interrelationships between the U.K. and the other two countries, with examples extending from 1861 to the 1998 peace agreement. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Cnukusir.wps

Princess Diana’s Divorce & Death / Role Of The Media : This 14 page report examines the role the media has played in the life and death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Posed is the question : ‘where does responsible journalism end and dangerous exploitation begin ?’ Bibliography included. Princess.doc

Princess Diana / The Myth Of The Good Mother : This 10 page essay explores Diana's role as a mother and how, although she tried to fulfill this obligation, often chose selfish goals over the integration of family values. A synopsis of the events which led up to her divorce, and her death, portray a troubled woman intertwined with the colder side of royalty. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Diana.doc

Princess Diana / Her True Story : A 5 page review of the book by Andrew Morton and of its update Diana: Her True Story, In Her Own Words which was released within weeks of the fatal car crash which took the life of Diana, the former Princess of Wales. An examination is provided of the justification an author has in writing such books. Bibliography lists one source other than the book. Diana.wps

Comparison Between Great Britain And France : A 10 page paper discussing the differences and similarities in forms of government, the current economics and economic issues facing France, public opinions on both sides of the economic issues facing France and support of the argument that they should follow British example. The writer argues that France would best serve its own interests by emulating the UK and make a slow progressive entrance into the new global economy. This will be better served by turning away from the disinformation French citizens have lived under since the inception of the EU and EMU ideas. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Britfran.wps

The Politics Of France And England Compared : A 12 page paper. England and France are two distinct countries with two distinct ideologies. Both First World powers influential in determining the course of global politics, they do share many similarities as leaders in the European Community, even though they both have very different roles both in the politics of the European Community and in the world. Formerly widely divergent in their political views, France and England still have different viewpoints, but are finding they have new areas of agreement, also. Bibliography included. Fr-Engl.doc

The English Channel Tunnel : A 24 page paper that looks at the English Channel Tunnel Project as a major engineering and construction project and considers the elements that impacted its completion and the systems that supported its success. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Chunnel.doc

Impact Of French Foreign Policy on European Politics of the Pre-World War I Era : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the foreign policies of France as they impacted European politics as a whole. This paper focuses on the period between 1890-1914, just prior to the onset of World War I. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Francep.rtf

Analysis Of France's Fall From Power : A 12 page paper discussing the political, ecnomic and cultural aspects of France's rise to world power, and its subsequent fall with the Nazi invasion in 1940. The paper posits that the political influences were continual military losses after substantial successes on the Eurpean continent and internationally; economic factors are related to the introduction of industrialization and growing internal unrest, resulting in the cultural relationship of a literate working class. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Fran1940.wps

French Colonization Of Indochina : A 6 page paper that provides an overview of French colonization in Indochina and considers the elements that led to the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Indofra.wps

The French Educational System : A 10 page research paper discussing the French system at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. It also summarizes recent changes and innovations which includes a more realistic approach to teaching French history. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Frenched.wps

France / Economic Purposes : A 5 page essay exploring the economy of France as it prepares to enter the European Monetary Union. France has historically been known as a welfare state due to its many and varied entitlement programs. With the EMU looming in the near future, France must make some dramatic changes in its fiscal policies. This writer discusses the attitudes displayed by the French people and its government in 1996 and compares those to the budget for 1998. France will be ready for the EMU. Bibliography lists 5 sources. France.wps

Political Parties Of France & Germany : A 10 page paper providing a comparative overview of the political parties and elections in Germany and France Bibliography lists 7 sources. Polpart.wps

Spain & Political Transition : A 10 page research paper examining the transition from Francoism to Democracy in Spain. Included is a review of the literature on the success of the transition and factors that lead to a successful transition. Extensive bibliography is provided. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Spainand.wps

The Rise of Industrialism, Nationalism, & Imperialism in Post-Napoleonic Europe : A 5 page essay discussing the cause and effect relationship between the
rise of industrialism, nationalism, & imperialism in Europe and how it led to World War I. Information comes from "A History of the Modern World" by Robert Roswell Palmer and Joel Colton. Postnap.wps

Fascism in Austria : A 22 page paper on the rise and influence of fascism in Austria. Examined during the period between the two wrold wars, the various fascist movements are analyzed. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Austria.wps

The Rise of Fascism in Italy : A 14 page paper that explores the beginning of fascist power in Italy, with a strong focus on Benito Mussolini and his reign. The paper looks at the political environment leading to Mussolini's reign and his response to it. The paper explores the political and cultural view of the populace and other political parties, and the changes in Mussolini's viewpoint/action, and how his actions led to the fall of fascism in Italy and contributed to the fall of Nazism in Germany. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Italyf.wps

The Rise Of Fascism, In Italy : 7 pages in length. Italian Fascism came on the heels of a war that physically and economically crippled Italy. In an attempt to regain control, Italian general and dictator, Benito Mussolini (Il Duce), created a political party that rivaled the existing Socialist party. Fascism was considered a harsh, dictatorship-type of power that left many people the victims of its tyranny. The writer addresses what instigated the formation of Italian Fascism, as well as touches upon various elements of the movement. Bibliography lists several sources. Fascism2.wps

The Italian Transition From Fascism : An 8 page paper discussing Italy’s transition from fascism to democracy. The writer chronicles the rise and fall of fascism and the eventual rise of democracy, illustrates the pluralism, mobilization, and leadership of the fascist regime and the reasons for its downfall. Emphasis is given to fascist ideology and its inability to infiltrate Italian society and institutions, as well as demonstrating the inadequacies of fascism and the reasons for the rise of democracy. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Italiaf.wps

Retailing In Italy : An 8 page paper in which the writer discusses retailing in Italy. Covered are Italy "then," now, and in one possible future. Of particular concern are the reasons for certain market failures and successes. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Italy2.wps

William II of Germany : The role of this monarch in World War I is emphasized in this 6 page report. An overview of the life and times of this emperor who lived between 1859 and 1941 is provided. Personality traits are analyzed in conjunction with the start of the Great War. Bibliography lists 7 sources. William2.wps

A History Of Fascism In Germany : A 20 page paper that provides an overview of the development of fascism in Germany and focuses considerably on the impact that Hitler had on institutionalizing German fascism. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Fascism.wps

The Rise Of Fascism & The Response Of The Scientific Community :
A 6 page essay on the rise of fascism which includes its major charactertistics and origins as well as a look at the role that science played in helping to formulate the rascist ideas behind the Nazi atrocities. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nazifasc.wps

The German Question : A 4 page paper that discusses the relationship between the Third Reich and the Weimer Democracy with today's European situation. The works of Bracher, Dobkowski and Walliman, and Sweitzer are discussed in light of the "big business" philosophies then and now, and the remaining German question around a centralized and unified Germany. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Germnecn.wps

Before The Deluge: A Portrait Of Berlin In The 1920s : This 10 page paper evaluates the presentation of Berlin in the period between World War I and World War II related in Otto Friedrich’s work, which demonstrates that the pre-World War II Berlin represented many positive social, cultural and political components that were no longer present at the end of the war. Bibliography lists 1 source. Delugefr.wps

Sociopolitical Causes Of The Holocaust : This 6 page report provides a geopolitical analysis of pre-WWII Germany and the factors that led to the Holocaust. What were the factors that led to the mass consciousness bent on the annihilation of the Jewish people and Hitler’s rise to power? Only the most brief overview of one of the most horrendous events in history can be contained in six pages.Holopa.wps

Hitler’s SS In The 1930s : A 15 page analysis of the political situation in Germany in the 1930s, and what part the SS played in Hitler’s rise to power, including the power struggle that went on between the SA and SS. Bibliography lists 9 sources. SS1930.wps

Germany Since Re-Unification : A 5 page paper on problems that have occurred in Germany since its reunification in the early 90's. Specifically examined is a relevant speech which provides reason to fear Germany's aggressive role within the New World Order. Reference is made to the rise of the Third Reich in pre-World War II days and the possibility of a re-occurrence. Bibliography lists 4 supporting sources. Germany.wps

Toland’s Hitler : A 6 page paper discussing the book, "Adolf Hitler," by John Toland. This book gives the reader a unique look into many aspects of Hitler and his life, that were previously unknown. They are fascinating facts which help to illustrate that, while he was one of the most horrid men in history, he was still a human being. The book is filled with interviews and various bits of information that most people know nothing about. A truly fascinating book. No additional sources cited. Tolhit.wps

Hitler and Corradini: Nationalistic Fervor : A 5 page comparison of how Adolf Hitler ("Mein Kampf") and Enrico Corradini ("Italian Fascisms") addressed the social domestic policies of nationalism. The writer also addresses why the two writers addressed the issue as they did. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Cnsocnat.wps

Hitler’s Degenerate Art Exhibition : A 6 page paper in which the writer provides an overview of the elements leading up to the German "Degenerate Art Exhibiton" of 1937, in which the Nazi's displayed and then destroyed the art works of major modernists artists. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Degenart.wps

Adolf Hitler / The Man, The Demon : A 6 page discussion of Adolf Hitler, his life and his atrocities. Hitler’s background and twisted philosophies are expounded upon. Bibliography lists four sources. Hitdemon.wps

Hitler's Rise To Power : 6 pages in length. A discussion of Germany during the 1920's and early 1930's - with focus on how economic conditions facilitated Hitler's rise to power. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Germecon.wps

Hitler’s Rise to Power -- 1921-1933 : An 11 page paper discussing the background of Hitler’s rise to power in the 1920s and early 1930s. It considers the social, economic, and emotional factors that contributed to the development of the Third Reich. Bibliography lists five sources. Hitrise.wps

Hitler And The Voters : A 7 page paper that considers why people voted for Hitler between 1928 and 1932. The writer suggests that Hitler's personal characteristics and his ideologies were supported by the economic and political climate of his day and that people voted for him because they needed relief from their existing political and economic situations. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Hitler.doc

Hitler vs. Napoleon : An 8 page comparison of their leadership styles, based on the idea of abuse as a power base. The writer posits that Hitler learned from his powerful position how to build up the masses sense of their own selves, while Napoleon became more and more ostracized by the masses because of his inability to "share" his power. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Hitlnapo.wps

The Negative Use of Propaganda By Hitler And Others : A 7 page paper in which the writer discusses the negative uses of political propaganda throughout 20th century history. A sizable portion of this discussion focuses upon propaganda used on the Austrians during German occupation, Hitler's propaganda-based manipulation of his own country in Nazi Germany, the 1990's-era Bosnian/Chechen conflicts, etc; Bibliography lists 4 sources. Propagan.wps

Resistance To The Third Reich : A 10 page research paper on the resistance efforts of two German pastors, Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Niem÷ller. Both were held in Nazi concentration camps; Bonhoeffer was executed only 11 days before the camp was liberated by U.S. troops. Niem÷ller was released with the liberation by U.S. troops, and continued to be outspoken on pulpit responsibility until his death in 1984. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Reichres.wps

Book Analysis / Shirer's The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich : A 15 page critique of Shirer's book. The critique considers Shirer's use of his own personal experiences, Nazi documentation and visual representation of their own operations in support of an argument in support of the work as a good representation of historical fact. The argument is contrasted to arguments against the validity of most written history. No additional sources cited. Thirdr.wps

Organization of Nazi Concentration Camps : The organization inherent in the Nazi agenda is addressed in this 25 page study. All death camps are explored, as well as the concentration camp Dachau of which there is a major focus. The structure of the camps, as well as the entire operation, is described. Some Nazi theory is discussed, including major concepts and terminology used within the camp boundaries. Bibliography lists 17 sources. Dachau.wps

Auschwitz -- Human Strength in the Face of Insurmountable Odds : 7 pages in length. In WWII the tragedy that unfolded in regards to the Holocaust was horribly atrocious. Many died in unimaginable ways. The hideousness that the Germans demonstrated was beyond comprehension to the outside world. It was undoubtedly far worse for the victims within who witnessed the acts against humanity every day as they somehow survived the concentration camps. Some survived by aiding the Nazis, but most survived by luck or sheer force of will. While it cannot be assumed that there are no great emotional scars remaining for the survivors, some of whom have taken their own lives since, it is quite evident that the strength many of these survivors demonstrated was insurmountable in the face of devastating odds. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Ausch.wps

Nazi History -- The Lebensborn & Eugenics : A 20 page research paper providing an overview of the laws pertaining to eugenics and the Lebensborn program of Nazi Germany. The writer centers on the program and the support mechanisms put into place to underscore the development of the Nazi master race in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Nazifinl.rtf

Nazism vs. Fascism: 8 pages in length. The writer discusses and compares Nazism and Fascism of Hitler and Mussolini. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nazfac.wps

Nazi Germany At War : A 5 page paper discussing the book, "Nazi Germany at War" by Earl R. Beck. while adequate knowledge was possessed by this reader in regards to the Nazis and their hideous acts against humanity beck’s work enlightened this writer considerably. Hitler and his regime were perhaps one the most atrocious political groups of all time. The work of Beck, though tinged with an intellectual pretentiousness, gave more depth and meaning to Nazi Germany at war. Nazig.wps

Adolf Karl Eichmann : A 5 page overview of the World War II activities of Adolf Eichmann, of his escape after the war, and of his capture and trial as a war criminal. Bibliography lists three sources. Aeichman.wps

The General Staff & Its Problems Vol II by General Lundendorff :
A 10 page paper on the general’s memoirs of World War I and the German High Command. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Luden.wps

Political Parties in Modern Germany / An Analysis : An 8 page paper discussing the ways German political parties have changed in recent years, what have caused the changes, and what is the likely outcome. The paper looks at the four major parties in great depth, analyzing their differences and opposing issues. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Moderng.wps

The Reunification of Germany : This 12 page paper discusses the ramifications of Germany’s unification in 1990 and its relationship to the world order. Germany’s place in terms of the fall of communism as well as its role in the creation of world peace is explored. The critical Two Plus Four meetings are also explained. Bibliography lists 12+ sources. Grmny.wps

A Critique of German Democracy : A 12 page paper that provides an analytical overview of German democracy since reunification, and considers the implications for both political and social constructs. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Germand.wps

Currency In 1998’s Germany : Several economic variables are analyzed in this 5 page paper that looks at the change in currency to the euro in contemporary Germany. Several concepts are discussed including the PPP and Big Mac index. Market sentiment, German economic history as well as its 1998 condition is provided. Recommendations for the future are included. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Germcurr.wps

A. James McAdams’ "Germany Divided" : A 5 page paper in which the writer provides an overview of McAdams’ book and suggests a critical evaluation of the work. No additional sources cited. Mcadams.wps

The Impact Of Rap / Hip Hop Music In Germany : 9 pages in length. With its roots in America, German rap and hip hop have grown throughout the years to incorporate many and various interpretations. Both mainstream and underground groups are represented in Germany, with a bigger emphasis placed on mainstream acceptance. The writer discusses how rap and hip hop have infiltrated Germany, how it differs from its American cousin, as well as what separates the mainstream from the underground. Bibliography lists 8 sources. GermnRap.wps

Germany’s Volkswagen Beetle : A 12 page research paper which examines the history of the Third Reich’s "people’s car"-the most popular car in automotive history-its legend and the reality, and how the new "Bug" compares with the old. Although originally the brainchild of Hitler, the Volkswagen Beetle has taken on a new identity of its own. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Volksbug.wps

Polish Anger & The Holocaust : A 5 page paper on the writings of Polish Holocaust survivor Tadeusz Borowski in his book "This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen." The paper concludes that Borowski’s refusal to separate the prisoners and captors into victims and villains has to do with his own sense of shame as a non-Jew as well as his sense of Jews as "outsiders". Bibliography lists 1 source. Polisang.wps

How Unemployment Affects the Economy : A 10 page paper which presents the economic condition of the world based on unemployment. The paper presents the poor unemployment conditions of England, France, and Spain, with Spain's unemployment as high as 22 percent and states the effects this has on those countries ability to compete in the global marketplace and internal ills. By comparison, the paper presents the productivity of the United States, its low unemployment figures, despite downsizing and cost reductions, and how this affects its economic status on the world front. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Unemecon.wps

Military Studies / Napoleon vs. Frederick The Great : A 4 page paper that discusses the military differences between Napoleon and Frederick the Great and creates a premise for the development of warfare. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Frednap.wps

Anastasia / The Riddle of Anna Anderson : A 9 page paper on the woman who claimed she was the Grand Duchess Anastasia, and thus the only survivor of the Russian Imperial Family to survive the Russian Revolution. The writer compares different stories about Anastasia and attempts to reconcile fact from fiction in an effort to determine whether or not Anna Anderson was truly the Grand Duchess. Forensic / D.N.A.-related evidence is presented and the writer ultimately describes how science unraveled the mystery years later and discovered that Anderson was not who she claimed to be. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Anna.wps

Transition & Change In The Economy Of Greece : Continued political turmoil and border strife in the first years of Greek independence delayed any significant steps toward the development of a modern economy until the late 1800’s. Rapid industrialization began much later in the late 1950’s. In in this 20 page paper, the writer argues that successful developments, both the immediate and the latter, were largely the result of a structuralist-Marxist approach that prevailed for some time in Greece. Until the 1890's, economic growth had been largely dependent on agricultural performance. Bibliography lists 20+ sources. Greekeco.wps

The Dictatorship In Greece Following The Coup Of 1967 : An 11 page paper that provides an analysis of the history and economic elements that directed the dictatorship of Greece following the coup of 1967. This writer provides a distinct look at the elements leading up to the coup and the leadership under the emerging dictatorial reign. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Greekdit.wps

Economic Policies Of The Grecian P.A.S.O.K : An 8 page essay examining the economic policies of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Panhellinion Socialistiko Kinima-PASOK), the style of Greek government first put into place in the 1970’s but brought to full invasiveness under the leadership of Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou beginning in 1982. Originally intended to pull Greece up to the economic levels of the rest of the European Community nations, PASOK’s pervasiveness grew unchecked and became thoroughly corrupt. With the death of Papandreou in July, 1996, the new government of Costas Simitis hopes to reverse many of the economic policies and practices that have prevented Greek economic growth. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Pasok.wps

The Cold War -- A Reaction to Foreign Policy ? : A 6 page paper on the possible effects of foreign policy in igniting the Cold War. The writer examines the different doctrines at the time and explains how the failures of foreign policy may have precipitated the Cold War. A number of global events from the Cold War era are cited to illustrate key points. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Coldwar4.wps

Comparative Politics / Formal Power In France vs. Spain : An 8 page research paper in which the writer compares the formal power of Spain and France. Specifically examined is the role of formal state power, as seen in the actual constitutions of each country and how these are each representative of present day Western European politics. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Compo.wps

Europe Since 1870 : 6 pages worth of short essays discussing Europe since 1870. Topics include the Dreyfus Affair as an example of foreshadowing (1.25 pages), Darwin's Alleged Attack on the Underpinnings of Christianity (2 paragraphs), Whether Nazis were psychotic or evil (2 paragraphs), the World War I film 'Gallipoli," Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy, and issues relevant to Fascism and Mussolini. No Bibliography. Eur1870.wps

Europe Since 1870, # 2 : 4 essays- each 1+ pages in length. Brief, yet detailed analyses of Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy, hypothetical Tolstoy vs. Bernhardi, hypothetical Dutt vs. Kipling, and Mussolini's fascism : the question of human rights. No Bibliography. Eur1870p.wps

Greece, WWII / Resistance Groups : A 20 page research paper on the specific communist resistance groups who won the Allied war against the Axis in Greece. The author considers the economic factors behind the development of the communist resistance movement and how it served as the Greek army during World War II. The author discusses this in terms of the class system devised by Plato and concludes with a correlation between the Greek experience and today’s worldwide poverty problem as handled by "terrorist" resistance groups and world leaders. Bibliography cites 11 sources. Grecwwii.wps

The Democratization of Romania : An 8 page paper on the history and revolution in Romania, and the subsequent events. The writer details especially the period since 1989, with the governments of Iliescu and Constantinescu. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Romaniad.wps

European Communities in the Aftermath of World War II : A 6 page paper dealing with the formation of international European alliances after World War II. The presence of an ever-growing "European Community" is stressed. Bibliography includes two references. Eurocomm.wps

Issues Concerning A Common European Currency / France & The Euro : An 8 page paper discussing the introduction of the common European currency,
the "euro," and its implications for the nation of France. Issues examined include the reasons for France’s support of the euro and a common currency, as well as the political ramifications the entire issue has brought about between European nations. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Franceur.wps

The Euro & A Global Environment : A 6 page examination of the move towards a common currency in Europe called the Euro. Issues discussed include the benefits of the Euro in regards to a world currency and also world unification. The current situation is discussed, in that the euro will be fully in effect on January 1, 1999, as well as the impact this reality will have on the economic situations of investors. It is assumed that if this monetary combination succeeds, it would not. perhaps, be out of the question to assume such would also work on a global scale. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Euroglo.wps

The Euro : This 10 page paper looks at the introduction of the euro and its possible effects on different parts of Europe, the United States and investors as well. Several points of view are analyzed including that of businessmen, economists and the general public’s perception of the currency change. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Euroeff.wps

European Monetary Union / General Overview : 5 pages in length. The writer discusses the European Union and how it affects the different countries of Europe, particularly in light of the fact that Russia applied to the Union after her neighbors. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Emufict.wps

European Monetary Union / Issues Concerning A Common Currency :
A 10 page paper on the issue of implementing a common currency in Europe. The writer addresses the pros and cons and gives suggested solutions. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Currncy.wps

European Monetary Union .. EMU Stability : A 5 page economic research paper that argues that the EMU may experience some instability at its introduction, but in the long run, it is a necessary component of globally expanding economies. The writer explores the issue in terms of both advanced and fragile/emerging economies, and in terms of currency convertibility. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Emuecon.wps

European Money Union -- Maastricht Delay: An 8 page research paper investigating the significance and the repercussions of the Maastricht treaty conference in bringing Europe to a uniform currency. The paper lists the EMS as the forerunner of the European Monetary Union in its role of setting fixed exchange rates among the currencies of Europe, explaining why Germany was chosen as the point of reference for the exchange rates, why Germany has been a leader in organizing the EMU, and why Germany may be excluded from the initial round of member states when the Euro is launched, planned for January 1, 1999. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Emu.wps

A Common Currency -- The Euro : A 5 page paper discussing the introduction of the euro (EMU) and the extent to which it will reduce the "home bias" of portfolio managers in the U.S. Also reviewed are several issues relating to the euro and how it will affect the UK’s pound sterling. Bibliography lists five sources. Theeuro.wps

The European Investment Bank : This 5 page paper provides an overview of the creation of the European Investment Bank as well as the role it plays within the purview of international banking. The bank’s relationship with the European Union (EU) is also discussed in detail. This historical reference is supplemented by recent actions taken by the enormous institution. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Eib.wps

Foreign Direct Investment In The European Union : An 8 page paper discussing foreign direct investment in the European Union and what policy changes could or should be made. Bibliography lists eight sources. EUinvest.doc

The European Court Of Justice / How The Design Of The Institution Impacts Policy Outcomes : This 6 page paper considers the development and inclusive structures of the European Court of Justice, and considers whether changes in the design of the institution would have any notable impact on the outcomes for European policy determinations. This paper begins by evaluating the nature of the ECJ development, including its premise in the Maastricht Treaty, and then relates inherent conflicts and the possible benefits that can be derived from changes. Bibliography lists 7 sources. ECJ.wps

Italy During The Nineteenth & Twentieth Centuries : This 8 page paper takes a critical look at this country’s difficult history from the time of Napoleon’s rule through the present day. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Itly1920.wps

Investing In Italy : An 8 page research paper investigating the wisdom of investing in Italy. Known for its history of tumultuous government, Italy has enjoyed a relative period of calm since early 1996 when Prime Minister Romano Prodi's center-left Olive Tree Alliance took power with a primary goal of being among the first of the European countries to join the European Monetary Union in 1998. In order to achieve their goal, Italy will have to meet strict requirements regarding economic growth and overall deficit, and the central government realizes that foreign investment along with their own hard work can help Italy achieve their goals. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Italytinv.wps

Italian History and Economy : A 10 page research paper investigating the history and economy of Italy. Reviews the political climate as well as economic reforms made in the last several years. Offers data on trade, GDP, and efforts made towards the goal of becoming a founding-member of the EMU. Bibliography includes 6 references. Italy.wps

Italy’s Governmental Focus On Joining The European Monetary Union :
A 10 page paper on public policy in Italy concerning bringing the country’s economy in line with the standards set in 1992 in Maastricht for membership acceptance in the European Monetary Union (EMU). The EMU will establish a common currency for all member states and eliminate the political barriers of border and exchange rates. Italy has widely disparate regions: the wealth of the country is centered in the industrialized north, while the agricultural south is poor. Italy is working to achieve EMU and use the benefits of membership to ease the economic disparities between their two main regions. Bibliography lists 9 sources. ItalyEU.wps

The European Union : A 12 page paper describing the European Union. Details are given on the history of Europe and the desire for a form of unity. Separate countries are given some mention for the purpose of examining more closely the individuals and their situations as they relate to the Union. A section on the developing of one set monetary unit is included in the effort to show that this is perhaps the most essential element in the attempt of the European Union to become more competitive and successful in the world marketplace. A references page with 8 sources follows. EUnion.wps

The European Union / A Realistic Examination : 7 page discussion & analysis of the European Union, its formation, feasibility, economic vitality, relations, etc; Bibliography lists 10 sources. Europuni.wps

Pope John Paul II’s Political Influence In Eastern Europe : A 15 page paper looking at John Paul’s entire papacy, but focusing on his role in the fall of communism in Eastern Europe. There is an old saying among Christians admonishing them not to be so heavenly-minded that they’re no earthly good. Pope John Paul lives the exhortation, and without risk of failing to be of any "earthly good." To say that Pope John Paul II was "instrumental" in the fall of communism in Eastern Europe is far more than simple understatement. Though the US was involved at the level of Ronald Reagan and William Casey, it was John Paul II who determined which course of action would be taken in Poland when there was disagreement over the best ways to support Solidarity while it was illegal. A committed anticommunist, John Paul caused the entire Catholic community to be supportive of the work of Solidarity in Poland. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Johnpaul.wps

Impact Of Asian Markets On Sweden’s Economy : Sweden’s economic problems are discussed in light of the Asian financial crisis in this 5 page paper. Details concerning specific businesses, primarily in the banking and manufacturing industries, are included. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Swedenec.wps

Security In Europe : A 12 page paper that looks at the issue of security in Europe as the face of that region changes. This paper considers the roles of both the EU and NATO. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Secueur.wps

Effects Of The War In Bosnia : A 5 page paper that discusses the effects of the War in Bosnia in relationship to the people, including their ongoing memories of the war, but more importantly how that relates to their current situation. The writer posits that politically, the war is merely at a truce because the country is run by war criminals, and from a personal viewpoint, the reunification not only poses continued deprivation, but no long-term solutions. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Bosniwar.wps

Migration Of Bosnian Refugees : This 5 page overview explores the situation in Bosnia, with focus on refugees from the area. Treaties, involvement of other countries as well as the impact the situation has had on other nations are all discussed. The reason behind the conflict, known as "ethnic cleansing" is included as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Bosnian.wps

The Decision To Send Troops To Bosnia : A 5 page paper discussing the ideological and motivational perspectives that influenced the U.S. decison to send troops into Bosnia. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Bosnia.doc

Rights vs. Sanctions / Differences Between Democratic & Non-Democratic States : A 3 page essay on the reasons why sanctions do not work in non-democratic societies. Using Bosnia as an example, the writer presents an argument for the advantage of having inalienable rights to government accountability. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Bosniesy.doc

US Foreign Policy In Bosnia : A 7 page paper that provides an overview of US foreign policy in Bosnia, and provides a critical analysis of the actions taken in that region by the united states and their outcomes in recent years. Bibliography included. Bosnia2.doc

Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia : This 8 page paper looks at the problems in Bosnia as a result of the Serb’s desire for ethnic cleansing. The problem is looked at from both a historical and sociological perspective.Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ethclean.wps

Balkan Conflicts & Ideologies / 1913-1914 : A 6 page research paper exploring how the concept of authoritarianism was developed in the Balkans and its contribution to the first and second Balkan Wars. The writer explores general theories, then addresses specific details about the actions of Bosnians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Romanians, and Serbs during this period. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Cnbalkan.wps

Kosovo / Its History, Its Ramifications : A 6 page overview of the history of Kosovo and its current political status. Discusses the relative demographics of the region in terms of Serbs and Albanians and outlines the probabilities of independence and overall consequences of such independence. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Kosovo.wps

U.S. -- Central European Involvement : An 11 page paper discussing current US interest and policies for Central Europe--specifically Hungary, Poland and the Czech republic. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Ceneuro.wps

Yugoslavian Dissolution : A 10 page research paper with an overview of three theories regarding dissolution of the Yugoslav Republic. The three areas explored include the U.N. offer of recognition, economic factors, and ongoing animosity of between the various ethnic nations. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Yugofall.wps

The Dayton Accord : A 10 page overview of the Dayton Accord, its history, implementation and current status. Stresses the importance of U.S. and NATO involvement. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Dayton.wps

The Macedonian Question : A 12 page research paper that investigates the Macedonian Question which has been intense intermittently for hundreds of years. In the 1990s, with the break-up of Yugoslavia and with the establishment of Macedonia as a separate independent nation, the question has once again become intense. Who has the most valid claim to this territory? This paper attempts to answer the question by presenting a brief historical overview, Yugoslavia's actions and evidence to suggest Greece's claim is the most valid. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Macedonia.wps

The Protest Of Vaclav Havel : a 7 page paper showing how Havel’s play "The Protest" demonstrates the effects of artistic repression during the Communist era in Czechoslovakia. It provides a considerable amount of background into the position of the Communists in that country at the time Havel wrote the play, and demonstrates how he moved from dissident playwright to President. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Havel.wps

The Czech Republic & Privatization : A 20 page discussion on their successful privatization program, but how the program has contributed to some long-range economic problems requiring divestiture of the government of its interests in the voucher-holding investment funds. The writer discusses the country’s relationship with the IMF and the EU, and how Czech has responded quickly and appropriately to the Asian financial crisis. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Czechprv.doc

Experiences Of Czech Immigrants In The U.S. : A 5 page paper discussing the experiences of Czech Republic immigrants in the United States. The writer examines the "push and pull" factors that resulted in their immigration and a number of the socio-economic factors that made them leave their homeland. Bibliography lists four sources. Czech.doc

Belgium / Electoral Systems & Politics : A 5 page overview of the Belgium political system as it is related to its electoral system. The paper posits and supports the argument that in order for a move to a party ticket to work in Belgium, a sense of public conscious must be developed, or devolution and the party ticket will only serve to worsen the country’s crisis. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Belgpol.wps

American International Business in Europe : A 35 page research paper closely examining the prospects for US-based businesses in Europe. All around the world, nations are forming geographic alliances to help build their share of the world market, but Western Europe is taking one extra "giant step" in their plans for a barrier-free Europe with a common currency in use by the year 2002. The US Mission to the European Communities acts as liaison for US-based businesses in both current and future operations. The US Agency for International Development (US-AID) is working to assist the emerging economies of post-communist Central and Eastern Europe in joining the world market. Three world-leading, US-based businesses, Microsoft, IBM and Hewlett-Packard, are discussed in relation to their existing European efforts. Bibliography lists 29 sources. Big-Busi.wps

Business Attractiveness Of The Former Eastern Bloc Countries : 7 pages in length. Poland and Hungary seem to have bogged down some in their economic reforms that are even now ongoing, but Czechoslovakia approached the same reform measures in a different order after the initial shock of ending government programs related to price and production. The Czechs have been the most successful in their economic change programs, primarily through their mass privatization efforts. All of them are highly attractive to businesses because of the dedication of their people to commit to and stick with a goal when giving up would be so much easier, and for the governments’ solicitous attitudes toward foreign business investment. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Blocou.wps

Lech Walesa : In 5 pages the author discusses Poland's Lech Walsea and his role, importance, and significance in Polish Solidarity. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Walsea.wps

Poland In The Nineties : This 5 page paper looks at political and economic changes in Poland during the nineties. The interrelationship between the two is discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Poland3. wps

Switzerland’s Tourism Industry : A 7 page research paper exploring the tourist industry in Switzerland. The largest single employing industry in the country, tourism is regulated by federal policies within which the ecology of the country is considered. Switzerland receives visitors totally more than four times it own population each year. Bibliography lists 7 references. Swisstou.wps

The Economic System Of Martinique : A 6 page paper discussing the economic system of Martinique and answering a variety of questions related to the country’s economy. Bibliography lists ten sources. Martinq.wps

NATOs Future Role : A 13 page paper discussing the roles NATO has set for itself for the 21st Century, including: expansion of the partnership to include more free states; a lasting order of peace for Europe based on human rights, freedom and democracy; meet the challenges of regional crisis and conflict management, improving the security and stability for Euro-Atlantic nations; and the consolidation of democratic and free societies on the European continent in order to create an undivided Europe. The paper discusses the opposing views to expansion, and its treatment of the Russia-Ukraine issue, and looks at ways in which the stated role could be improved upon. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Natorole.wps

Economics, Business and International Trade in Norway : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the progression of Norway from an agricultural center to a newly re-emerging force in international trade. This paper demonstrates that Norway's success is related to both international policies and national policies that have both contributed to economic successes there. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Norway.wps

Jozef Pilsudski : A 6 page paper on the life and times of Jozef Pilsudski (early 20th century), independent Poland’s first President. Attempts to show that although Pilsudski was a harsh ruler, he genuinely thought that he was helping Poland to become a strong and independent nation. Bibliography included. Pilsud.wps

Polish Stabilization : A 17 page research paper examining the stabilization policies of Poland since the fall of communism in 1989. The measures that Poles imposed on themselves were so severe that they were collectively termed "shock therapy." Inflation rates of nearly 600% combined with an unemployment rate that peaked at nearly 15%, combined with the abrupt end of all the social support programs available under communist rule made life in Poland extremely difficult, yet the people remained steadfast in their determination to "Return to Europe." Though they haven’t yet accomplished their full return, they’re well on their way—observers expect them to gain full membership into the European Community by the year 2000. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Poland.wps

Comparing American & Polish Culture : A 5 page research paper briefly exploring the American and Polish cultures. The emphases in the essay include: religion, family, children and teenagers. There are far more similarities between the two cultures than one would expect given their respective political backgrounds. Extensive bibliography is included. Amerpoli.wps

Swiss National Identity / A Neutral State? : An 8 page paper that postulates that the Swiss national identity as a neutral state has recently come into question. The particular question is their military involvement in World War II, and secondarily their holocaust victim holdings. The background of Swiss polity is presented, reflecting a fragmented form of government that has diverse influences, reflecting both positively and negatively on their national identity. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Swiss.wps

Socialism As A Political Philosophy : A 5 page paper describing socialism as a political philosophy and the impact this has on Eastern and Western Europe as they enter a new stage in economic negotiations. The author describes past events in the development of socialism and relates this to the current status of Europe following the break up of the USSR and the emergence of the European Union. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Socialis.wps

Albania : A detailed 11 page overview/ country profile (country study) of Albania and its demographics. Bibliography lists six sources. Albania.wps

(The) Armenian People : A sociopolitical examination of what the Armenian people have been doing since independence (Politics, jobs, agriculture, etc;). 5 pages, Bibliography lists 4 sources. Armenian.wps

Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), Kemalism, and Modern Turkey : A 25 page paper describing Mustafa Kemal's (later named ‘Ataturk’) principles of Kemalism and the political reshaping of the Turkish Republic under his rule. This paper provides an overview of each of the principles of Kemalism: republicanism, nationalism, populism, etatism, secularism and reformism, and demonstrates the way in which Kemal promoted these in the development of the Turkish Republic. Bibliography lists 13 sources. Ataturk.wps

Dictatorships / Cause & Effects : A 4 page paper on Turkey and the dictatorship of that country. The writer describes the factors common to dictatorships, and the long and short term effects. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Dictturk.wps

Legal Systems Of Estonia and Slovakia : A 14 page paper that describes the basis for the legal systems in both Estonia and Slovakia. This paper describes the legal processes within the structure of the other countries in Eastern Europe, and presents the necessity of legal constructs within the political climates of these two transitioning countries. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Estonia.wps

The Infrared Space Observatory : This 10 page report on the European Space Agency’s Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) gives an overview of what the ISO’s investigations are revealing, why its observations are in demand, and how its discoveries are beginning to rewrite the textbooks on astronomy. Bibliography lists four sources. Infrared.wps

The Social Structure of Portugal as Reflected in the Work of Eša de Queiroz : A 6 page paper primarily dealing with the social history of Portugal. It discusses how little Portugal changed between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, and touches on the work of realist writer Eša de Queiroz, who attempted to address Portugal’s social backwardness. No sources. Queiroz.wps

The Sinking Of The Titanic : A 10 page research paper summarizing the construction, amenities, and loss of the Titanic in 1912. As a direct result of the sinking of the Titanic, international ice patrols were instituted that remain in place today, and British shipping regulations were revamped. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Titanic2.wps

The Sinking Of The Titanic / Controversy & Discovery : An 8 page essay on the sinking of the Titanic. The writer describes the events that occurred and how unexpected the entire tragedy was. The ensuing controversy over responsibility and specific events is analyzed through related articles. A review of findings since the Titanic's discovery during the 1990's is included as well. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Titanic.wps

The Titanic / How The Different Social Classes Were Treated : In 3 pages, the writer discusses how the rich, middle class, and poor were treated on the fateful voyage of the Titanic in 1912. The bibliography lists 5 sources. Titansoc.wps

The Impact of Modern Technology On The Musical Cultures Of Eastern Europe : A 2 page paper that provides an overview of the impacts of modernization and musical technologies on the musical cultures in Eastern Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources. EeMusic.doc

European Information Policies : A 17 page paper on the issue of communications in the European communities. A description of Europe’s participation as well as many examples of possible initiatives is included. A discussion of the Green Paper on the Convergence of the separate sectors of communications is discussed. In addition there is some information offered as to some current technological decisions as they relate to the European communities such as issues surrounding other technological items that are prevalent in the United States. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Ecommun.wps

Turks in Bulgaria : A 5 page analysis of Bulgarian Turks in Bulgaria, their contributions to the government and how current Bulgarian Policy, generally, serves their needs. Although dissidence is growing, during the 1990s, the Turks have experienced a relatively peaceful existence in Bulgaria. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Bulgturk.wps

Book Review / World War I : Guy Chapman's "A Passionate Prodigality" is essentially a partial autobiography containing a lengthy World War I and post-wartime experience of great emotion for the author/narrator. In this 5 page review, the writer offers opinions and reactions to the content of the book and to the events of World War I in Europe as described by Chapman in his book. Passprod.wps

Film Analysis / "Babette's Feast" : A 5 page paper that considers the elements of religious affectation, lifestyle changes and "the meal" within the film, focusing on the impacts that these have on the community as well as Babette's character. (Film takes place in 19th century Denmark and deals heavily with the socio-political climate of the era). Babette.wps

*Also Be Sure To Check Out Our Holocaust Studies Section !

Europe & The World Wars

World War I & II : A 12 page paper which details some of the circumstances of World War I and II. World War I took place in the beginning of the century and changed the balance of powers that were in existence for centuries. Europe was virtually devastated by the war and the United States came out of it as a major world power. World War II was essentially a continuation of the first World War. Both wars have some similarities in their cause as well as the ensuing result. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Worldwar.wps

Fascism in Austria : A 22 page paper on the rise and influence of fascism in Austria. Examined during the period between the two wrold wars, the various fascist movements are analyzed. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Austria.wps

The Battle of Verdun : An 8 page paper that reviews the Battle of Verdun, a major battle of the First World War, and considers the overall impact of this event on the outcome of the War. This paper reviews the impact of the French defensive against Germany, and the expectations based on the premises of the German offensive that were never met. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Verdun.wps

The Battle Of Verdun #2 : 8 pages in length. The 1916 battle of Verdun is considered one of the most influential events to ultimately shape France's self-image as a country. Fought throughout the bitterest of winters, the soggy rains of spring and fall, and the infernal heat of summer, the battle cost the lives of some four-hundred thousand French fighters. So horridly etched upon history is the massacre, that just the mention of it triggers memories that the French vow will never be relived again. The writer offers an overview of the events leading up to the battle, as well as the tactics that were applied during fighting. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Verdun2.wps

A Turning Point In The History Of France : This 4 page report discusses the ways in which the "Great War" was a definitive moment in the history of France in terms of its influence on France after 1919. Bibliography lists 1 source. Francturn.wps

The Rise of Industrialism, Nationalism, & Imperialism in Post-Napoleonic Europe : A 5-page essay discussing the cause and effect relationship between the rise of industrialism, nationalism, and imperialism in Europe and how it led to World War I. Information comes from "A History of the Modern World" by Robert Roswell Palmer and Joel Colton. Postnap.wps

Imperialism As A Cause Of World War I : A 5 page paper arguing that the re-birth of imperialism (dating as far back as 1880) -- ushered in by the Industrial Revolution -- contributed greatly to the conflicts that would result in the outbreak of WW I. Specific examples of European conquest are given to illustrate points made. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Ww1imper.wps

Book Review / World War I : Guy Chapman's "A Passionate Prodigality" is essentially a partial autobiography containing a lengthy World War I and post-wartime experience of great emotion for the author/narrator. In this 5 page review, the writer offers opinions and reactions to the content of the book and to the events of World War I in Europe as described by Chapman in his book. Passprod.wps

Cultural Influence of World War I : An 10 page research paper on World War I's influence on art, literature and music. The writer describes the significance of World War I, the various art and literary movements, and the changes they led to. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Musicww1.wps

Causes Of The First World War : This 5 page essay analyzes four specific essays regarding the origins of World War I and comments on how Kaiser Wilhelm II would feel about the writers' comments. Different theories for the reasons for the War are discussed with contradictory evidence offered. No bibliography. War1essa.wps

The Origins Of World War I / Book Review : This 6 page essay discusses the content of a book by this same title -- one which closely examines the sociopolitical factors affecting the weeks and months subsequent to assassination of Austria-Hungary's Archduke Ferdinand and other issues causing the outbreak of war all around the globe. No bibliographic information is available. Ww1book.wps

Women In World War I : A 7 page research paper demonstrating the involvement of women in WWI relief efforts all around the world. The writer discusses the work of The Woman's Motor Corps, The Smith College Relief Fund, and more. Names of specific women who contributed most to the cause are mentioned and the unprecedented success they enjoyed in getting much larger companies and organizations from all over the world to help out is discussed in detail. It is noted that the self-motivated efforts of women were more socially-accepted during this era than they would have ever been in previous centuries of Western history. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Ww1women.wps

How World War I Set The Stage For World War II : In this 5 page essay, the writer argues that the severe terms and conditions imposed upon Germany at the conclusion of WWI contributed to that country's faltering economy and loss of national pride-- circumstances which made the German people susceptible to the propaganda of Hitler and the rise of the Nazi party. Thus, the world's harsh punishing of Germany ultimately ignited the sparks that would flame a Second World War. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Ww1.wps

World Wars I & II / Comparison Between Causes and Results : A 5 page exploration of the causes and results of World Wars I and II. The writer examines the premise that World War II was a direct result of the aftermath of World War I. Bibliography lists 2 sources. War1and2.wps

World War II / A General History : 5 pages in length. The largest and most costly war in history, World War II did much to bring together nations that had up until then been bitter enemies. The writer briefly chronicles the prewar climate, what actually set off the fighting, as well as the aftermath that followed. WWIIab.wps

The Causes and Effects of World War II : A 5 page paper on the causes and effects of Word War II. It includes insight and some facts as to why we went to war, who was involved, and what some of the outcomes were. It also describes some of the losses suffered by the various countries involved, and what motivated them to act as they did. Bibliography cites several sources. Ww-ii.wps

Did the U. S. Treat Germany & Japan Differently During WWII ? :
In 5 pages the writer attempts to answer the question of whether the United States treated Germany and Japan differently during World War II. Actual warfare, public attitudes, propaganda, etc. are discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Germtrea.wps

Prelude to World War : 6 pages total. A short essay discussing factors leading upto and surrounding World War I and U.S. involvement. Austria, Hungary, F.D.R., and others are frequently-mentioned keywords. The writer also briefly discusses the relevance of factors that would later lead upto WW II as well. Bibliography lists 6+ sources. Histess.wps

(The) Berlin Blockade : 8 pages in length. An intriguing essay that evaluates, analyzes, and forms an opinion about the Berlin Blockade. (An aggressive, post-WW II act by the former Soviet Union). Paper makes several very strong points. Bibliography lists six sources to support. Berlinbl.wps

The Blitzkrieg / German Warfare In WW II : A 10 page research paper on the blitzkrieg in World War II. The writer details the meaning of the term, the general tactics involved, and the specific campaigns by the Germans during the war. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Blitzkri.wps

Aviation Tactics in World War II / American vs. Japanese Perspectives :
A 12 page paper that provides an overview of the aviation tactics used by the German, Japanese and American troops in World War II. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ww2av.wps

Military Strategies & Tactics Used In The Invasion Of Yugoslavia, World War II : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the military aspects of the Yugoslavian invasion by the Germans in 1941. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Yugmili.wps

Cultural Changes Resulting From World War II : A 5 page paper examining the cultural changes ushered in by the actions and consequences of World War II. Hundreds of thousands of women had gone to work in the nation’s factories that had been dedicated to war materiel production and only grudgingly gave up those jobs for returning veterans. They had become accustomed to the wages and fulfillment of outside employment and set out to regain it in their own right. African Americans were granted the right to vote in 1944 because of their overwhelming willingness to fight and die for the country that had taken little notice of their existence, and the GI Bill provided access to college education to thousands who otherwise would not have been able to attend. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Ww2cult.wps



*Also Be Sure To Check Out Our HOLOCAUST Section - -With papers on Germany, The Jews, and More !

Modern Russia / Former Soviet Union

Industrial Development In Russia / 1689 Through 1917 : A 16 page paper discussing the industrial revolution in Russia throughout the rule of the Romanov dynasty. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Russiade.rtf

Russia’s Cultural Advancement During The Renaissance : 5 pages in length. While the rest of Europe was advancing culturally as a direct result of the Renaissance period, Russia did not reap the same benefits of cultural development. The Mongol occupation in Russia was responsible for the disproportionate growth; because of the ongoing Mongol suppression, Russians were not able to prosper culturally to the extent other European countries experienced. The writer discusses cultural advancement as it pertains to Russia during the Mongol occupation. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Russren.wps

Catherine The Great : An 8 page overview of the life and accomplishments of Catherine the Great. Although the ethics in her rise to the throne were questionable to say the least, Catherine proved to be an effective leader for Russia. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Tsarina.wps

Tchaikovsky As A Hero : The 5 page research paper on the life and music of nineteenth-century Russian composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky. The writer demonstrates how the composer’s gift of melody, technical proficiency, and contributions to ballet and opera definitely make him one of the greatest composer of all time. The paper also touches on how Tchaikovsky’s homosexuality influenced how his music was regarded in academic circles. Bibliography contains 4 sources. Tchai.wps

Tchaikovsky / Hero Or Villain ? : In 11 pages, the writer discusses that Tchaikovsky was in actuality a villain, not the hero that he was made out to be, while using critical perspectives such as Freudianism, Feminism, and Marxism. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Kovsky.wps

Decline Of Imperial Russia : A 5 page paper on the decline of Imperial Russia.
The discussion involves the argument of whether the decline was doomed or merely unlucky, based on pages 528-611 of the book Major Problems in the History of Imperial Russia by James Cracraft. The side that is taken is that of stating Imperial Russia was destined to fail in light of the fact that they refused to make necessary adjustments to the changes that were rapidly occurring throughout their continent, as well as the rest of the world. They ignorantly believed that they could uphold their tradition and follow their individual form of modernization without integrating themselves with anyone else. No additional sources cited. Imprussi.wps

War, Revolution & Peace in Russia / The Passages of Frank Golder, 1914-1927 : A 6 page analytical overview of this book, edited and introduced by Terence Emmons and Bertrand Patenaude. No additional sources cited. Fgolder.wps

Democracy in Russia : A 4 page research paper on the concept of democracy and its embodiment in Russia. The writer details the representative form of government, political parties, trends and social and economic problems. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Democr.wps

Socio-Cultural Influences And Elections In Russia : The effects of social, cultural and economic factors on politics are discussed in this 7 page research paper. The 1995 Russian Parliamentary election is highlighted as an example. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Russia.wps

Kazakhstan / An Economic History : An 8 page paper on this republic of the former Soviet Union. Its ecomonic history and the subsequent problems that have developed are examined. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Kazak.wps

The Russian Revolution and the Bolshevik Influence : A 6 page paper that posits that only a very small minority group numbering 33,000 formed the Bolshevik party --and gained the support of millions in order to cause the Russian Revolution under the leadership of Josef Stalin and with the support of Lenin. Bibliography includes 8 sources. Russrev.wps

The French & Russian Revolutions : A 5 page examination of the factors which cause revolutions with a comparison of the stimuli which caused the French and Russian Revolutions and their outcomes. Bibliography lists six sources. Charfa.wps

Sino-Soviet Relations From 1945-1989 : 5 pages in length. Nineteen eighty-nine was a most significant year for Sino-Soviet relations. The Chinese and the Russians had endured several decades of discord that ultimately culminated in the restoration of party-to-party relations, bringing together the two communist parties. The events that initially caused the rift between the two powers served to create considerable strain within existing Sino-Soviet relations; these concerns were not so much because of Russian initiatives or concessions but more because Chinese developments. The writer discusses the events affecting Sino-Soviet relations between 1945 and 1989. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Sinosov.wps

Women's Movement Of 1919 Russia / Conflicting Views : An 11 page paper that provides an overview of the elements leading to considerable opposition in the Russian Women's movement of 1919, essentially dividing the women of Russian. This paper argues that the fundamental premises of both Feminist and Bolshevik groups pitted women against women. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Russwf.wps

Soviet Film In The 1920s : An 8 page research paper on the political and aesthetic principles involved in filmmaking during this era. The writer presents critical commentary and examples from film. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Sovifilm.wps

A. H. Franks "Pavlova, 1881 to 1931" / A Biography : 5 pages in length. The true essence of life's dramatic celebrations and accomplishment is portrayed with vivid mastery in A. H. Franks' biography of Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova entitled Pavlova, 1881 to 1931: A Biography. The writer discusses how Franks captures Pavlova's joys and heartbreaks, successes and failures by offering the reading audience a detailed glimpse into the life of perhaps the most premiere Russian ballerina of her time. No additional sources cited. Pavlova.wps

Economic Policies Behind Stalin and the Bolsheviks / Effects of World War II : A 10 page paper that analyzes the economic politics behind Stalin and the Bolsheviks, in power during World War II, and how the war affected them. This paper discusses the party ideals, providing statistical information of its success and the resultant devastation of the war based on the West's, including the U.S. sanctions against the country before and immediately following the war. The paper also provides some background on the German threat. Bibliography lists 12 sources . Sovwwii.wps

Stalin's Rule / Leninist Or Otherwise? : 6 pages in length. There have been many changes from the time Stalin took over for Lenin's leadership; however, it is clear by witnessing the style of leadership Stalin exhibited that he was greatly influenced by Lenin. In fact, it can be argued that Stalin did not take over after Lenin's death; rather, he ascended to it by way of taking example from the late leader's strategy. Many have contended that Lenin groomed Stalin for the position by establishing a system of learning that enabled Stalin to carry forth a great deal of the typical daily government business, as well as tend to a number of domestic and foreign policy issues. However, others assert that as Lenin neared the end, he developed doubts concerning Stalin's ability to take over such a monumental task. The writer discusses whether or not Stalin's rule was influenced by Leninism. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Leninist.wps

Grigory Rasputin / A Defense : A 7 page paper reflecting the life of Russian "bad boy" Rasputin. The writer defends Rasputin's "wickedness", and espouses Rasputin as a great Russian historical figure. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Rasputin.wps

Nicholas II and the February Revolution : A 16 page paper that describes the history and persepectives around the February Revolution that led to the abdication of Nicholas II. This paper considers the impact of the two major political groups of the time, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks during the First World War, and the reflections of their membership on the leadership of Nicholas. This paper also recognizes Nicholas’ relationships with his advisors and their perceptions on the insurrection that caused his necessary abdication. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Nicholas.wps

Battle Of Nomanhan, Mongolia (Khalkin-Gol River) / Analyzed :
This 5 page research paper examines the 1939 Battle of Nomanhan border dispute between the Soviet and Japanese armies. Specifically discussed are the causes of the underlying causes of the battle, what took place, and its impact. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Nomanhan.rtf

The German Invasion of Russia / The Battle of Kursk : An 8 page view of the German invasion of Russia with particular emphasis on the Battle of Kursk as being the turning point of the war. Bibliography lists six sources. Kursk.wps

Lenin's Influence On The Russian Revolution : In 6 pages the author discusses Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his influence on the Russian Revolution. Lenin led the first great socialist revolution in world history. He was a political leader of genius, and a martyr. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Lenrus.wps

FDR vs. Stalin At Yalta : A 5 page paper promoting the argument that FDR was ‘duped’ by Stalin at the Yalta conference in 1945. Some background included on Stalin along with references to specific incidents showing how he manipulated the president in addition to other prominent figures. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Fdryalta.wps

Did Stalin Follow Lenin? : A 9 page paper focusing on the policies and practices of Lenin and Stalin. The writer details the ideology of Vladimir Lenin and analyzes whether Stalin swayed from Bolshevik philosophy. Bibliography lists nine sources. Bolshevi.wps

Lenin and Stalin -- Policies and Practices : A 15 page paper on the policies and practices of these two Russian dictators. The writer parallels Lenin and Stalin and describes their impact on the Russian people. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Bolshev2.wps

Totalitarianism & Joseph Stalin : This 10 page paper discusses totalitarianism, in general, and how Stalin’s regime of terror and complete control exemplifies it. More than Hitler or Mussolini, Stalin represents totalitarianism at its worst. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Stalinto.wps

The Pros & Cons Of Joseph Stalin's Industrialization : Stalin, knowing relatively little about human nature, other than Marx's treatise that "human beings could be molded to serve the state," created a vision of massive industrialization based on the "scientific man." In this 6 page research paper, the writer discusses both the positive and negative effects of Stalin's industrialization in Russia. A number of statistical and sociopolitical examples from 20th century Russian history are provided to better-illustrate points made. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Stalin.wps

Stalin & The Bomb / Book Review : A 9 page paper on David Holloway's book entitled "Stalin And The Bomb" in which the writer explores Soviet efforts to develop their own atomic bomb just after World War II. The geo-political implications of Stalin's project and our entry into what would truly become a "nuclear age" are evaluated. Bibliography lists 5 additional critical sources. Stalinbk.wps

Joseph Stalin / An Evaluation Of His Military Prowess : A 7 page paper on the leadership talents and military campaigns of Joseph Stalin. The writer focuses upon Stalin's activities just prior to and during World War II-- particularly the Red Army's conquests in the Far East and elsewhere. It is argued that Stalin should be commended for playing such a significant role in ultimately defeating the Germans. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Stalinww.wps

Differing Views of Stalin : A 5 page review and critique of three articles discussing Josef Stalin: Nove’s Was Stalin Really Necessary?, Khrushchev’s De-Stalinization Speech, and Toistoya’s In Cannibalistic Times. Nove wanders around and concludes that Stalin epitomized the wishes of the Party, but fails to address the fact that Stalin massacred most of the leading Party members when they disagreed with him; Khrushchev makes solid, valid observations on Stalin, but then follows them with saying that Lenin was not such a bad guy, after all. His support of Lenin weakens his stance on Stalin. Toistoya reports on the publication of Conquest’s book on Stalin. It was published in the former USSR in 1990, but most reading thinkers had already read it when it was smuggled into the country 20 years earlier. No bibliography. Stalin.DOC

Differences & Similarities Between Lenin, Stalin, & Mao : An 10 page reseach paper analyzing the similarities and differences of Lenin, Stalin, and Mao. The impact they had on their country is discussed. Further, a comparison is made between the writings of Lenin, Hitler and Mussolini. All were fanatics, all were dictators, all blamed another segment of their society for everything that was wrong. Extensive bibliography is included. Lenstalin.wps

Stalin / USSR Agenda & The Korean War : A 12 page essay on the Stalinist Agenda, the history behind it, and its application to the Korean War, and particularly the 38th Parallel. The writer also addresses the United States’ and United Nations’ agendas along the same thesis. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ruskorea.wps

U.S. Reaction To Soviet Invasions Of Czechoslovakia And Afghanistan :
This 8 page report discusses and compares the similarities and differences between the Soviet’s 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia and the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. The reaction of the U.S. in both circumstances is discussed, as well as reasons why the U.S. reacted differently in each situation. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Usreact.wps

Education In Russia : An 11 page research paper on education in Communist and Post-Communist Russia with particular emphasis upon the evolution of technical, engineering education. Specific institutes, course work, State Educational Standards, etc; are among the many items discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Russedu.wps

Gorbachev's Leadership : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of Gorbachev's leadership style and considers it in terms of the impacts on the Soviet coup and transformation. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Gorblead.wps

Gorbachev's Speech to the United Nations : 5 pages in which the author discusses the 1988 speech given by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. The speech is analysed. Gorbspee.wps

Legal Reforms Of Gorbachev vs. Yeltsin / Comparative Analysis :
A 15 page research paper examining the legal reforms of Gorbachev and Yeltsin. Specific focus on the attempt to establish "Rule of Law" and Constitutional Law. Successes and problems in both administrations as related to these concepts is discussed. Extensive bibliography provided. Gorbyelt.wps

A Machiavellian View Of Yeltzin : A 5 page analysis of the actions by the Russian president, Boris Yeltzin, who dismissed his entire Cabinet in March of 1998. The writer demonstrates that Yeltzin’s use of power can be described as Machiavellian in nature and demonstrated many of the principles of the 16th-century political philosopher. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Yeltsinm.wps

Gorbachev vs. Castro : 6 pages comparing Cuba's Castro and the former Soviet Union's Gorbachev-- Two Communist leaders who ruled their respective countries quite differently. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Gorbcast.wps

Gorbachev, American v. Russian View : A 5 page discussion of two views of Mikhail Gorbachev. The paper posits and discusses why Americans view Gorbachev as the hero of world peace and democratization, while Russians view him as the person who destroyed their country and a capitalist stooge. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Gorbi.wps

Looking Back / Soviet Foreign Policy : This 6 page research paper analyzes the radical changes that the Soviet Union underwent from 1980-1992 with regard to foreign policy and its impact on European Neighbors. These years were crucial as they were the last of the Soviet Empire. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Foresovi.wps

US-Soviet Foreign Relations / 1972 - 1991 : A 9 page paper covering the years 1972-1991 in US-Soviet relations. Paper is divided into 3 parts: 1972-1979; 1980-1985; 1985-1991. Bibliography lists12 sources. Ussoviet.wps

U.S. - Russian Relations / After The Cold War : A 3 page research paper exploring the necessity for the Presidents of the United States and Russia to continue meeting despite the end of the Cold War. The recent summit focused on expanding NATO, which Russia opposes, and further arms agreements. Bibliography included. Natoruss.wps

American Cultural Imperialism In The Post Cold War Era : A 5 page research paper that examines current thinking regarding the ways in which Western style consumerism has become the hallmark of globalization. Bibliography lists 3 sources. USculit.wps

What Won The Cold War? : A 6 page essay presenting the thesis that it was internal reform movements and the efforts of reform leaders such as Mikhail Gorbachev, rather than the actions of Ronald Reagan, which led to the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union. No additional sources cited. Coldwa4.wps

Parestroika : An 8 page paper describing the restructuring of the Soviet Union. Special attention is paid to Gorbachev who was the instigator of this movement towards change in Russia. A brief history of the movement and the areas it impacted are mentioned. The KGB, Twelve Year Plan, agriculture, industry, and work conditions are some of the areas affected. Parest.wps

Nuclear & Chemical Weapons Trade in the Russian Federation : 5 pages in length. A discussion of how the new Democracy in Russia brings about a wealth of new issues to consider regarding nuclear arms arsenal maintenance, weapons proliferation, etc; START treaties, policies, and the sociopolitical / financial aspects of former Soviet arms reduction are examined. Financial needs in Russia are seen as barriers to trust and a warning is given that we need to still keep an eye out for failed compliance. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Nukeruss.wps

The Russian Economy Before & After The Break-up of the Soviet Union / Economic History and Systematic Change
: The earliest notions of modern Russian economic state can be linked to the leadership of Peter the Great, who, in 1682, began to reshape Europe and initiated the entrance of Russia as a world power. Since that time, the transformation of economic conditions in Russia has been linked to the founding premises for expansion, control and industrial development asserted by Peter I. This 48 page paper reflects the nature of the Russian economy both before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union, and considers the link between the history of the economy and conditions in 1991 that resulted in the end of the Soviet Union. Bibliography lists 32 sources. Russiaec.wps

Klyuchevsky’s "Peter the Great" : A 5 page paper discussing the book "Peter the Great," by Klyuchevsky. The author, while at times vague and stinted in his writings, is able to illustrate one of the most influential men in history. Without Peter the Great Russia would not have been what it was, or was to become. Klyuchevsky’s book illustrates this very well and appears to achieve this alluded goal. No additional sources cited. Klyuch.wps

The Commonwealth of Independent States : A 9 page paper with a one page sentence outline and 3 maps, that describes the geography and topography of the republics within the Commonwealth of Independent states. This paper presents a short political and geographical history of the newly developing Commonwealth, and then choses 5 of the republics of the Commonwealth that best demonstrate the common geographical and topographical conserations of the area. The five republics utilized are: the Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azervbaigan and the Russian Federation. Bibliography lists approximately 8 sources. Commonw.wps

Professional Women in Russia -- Then and Now : A 14 page research paper on the role of professional women in Russia. The writer discusses the Soviet era and compares it with the present day as it relates to women' s roles. A number of strong analytical points are made and supported with social, cultural, and political fact. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ruswomn.wps

Post-Communist Russia : A 12 page research paper that gives an overall look at life in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Topics included cover the increase in crime, the economy, standards of living and the status of women. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Postcomr.wps

Main Barriers in Moving from Command to Market Economy / The Post-Soviet Example : The former Soviet republics have experienced a range of problems in asserting a transition from a central command economy to separate market economies, and this 8 page paper reflects the barriers to this transition. This paper considers the barriers to this change in general, including the absence of rule of law, the mentality of the citizenry, the fiscal system, tax system and monetary system, as well as infrastructure components and the impacts of technology, and then applies examples from the transitions that have occurred in Eastern Europe. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Commark.wps

Russia's Free Market Economy & Post-Communist Europe : A 6 page essay on the problems of trying to establish a free market economy in post-Communist Russia. It is recommended, however, that the newly-formed states offer great promise and that it would be most wise for us to form strategic alliances with them. The writer also cautions us about political instability and continued problems that could arise on a global scale if we are not careful. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Russimar.wps

Russia's New Role : This 12 page paper addresses the evolution of Russia's role in the United Nations. Also included is a look at the country's past, present and future. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Russiaun.wps

Reconciliation Of Two Views On The New Russia : A 7 page paper that explores this issue from Gail W. Lapidus’ anthology and Vladimir Andrle’s historiography. The writer posits that despite the fact that Lapidus seems to approach the resolution of the ethnic conflicts and economic issues from a centrist top-down view, in fact her research and conclusions are in line with Andrle’s history of a bottom-up power based on the strength of the "peasantry" of the old Russia. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Newruss.wps

Russia -- What is the Next Step? : An 8 page overview of the past and current political situation in Russia. Examines the factors which must be addressed in order for Russia to reestablish herself as a "normal" power in the international system. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Russnext.wps

Will Democracy Survive In New Russia ? : In 5 pages, the writer discusses whether democracy will survive in Russia. "Russia has experience momentous revolutions during the twentieth century. There are some that contend that Russia will face a crisis in its governance, but that democracy will prevail. Others view that the democratic tradition in Russia is weakened and that Russia will fall back to its old ways of an authoritarian system. This author posits that democracy will not survive in Russia." Bibliography lists 5 sources. Willdemo.wps

The Russian Mafia / Corruption in Communist and Post-Communist Russia :
A 12 page paper that considers the corruption of the Russian Mafia in recent history and reflects on possible solutions and obstacles to change. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Rusmaf.wps

Russian Economic Crisis : This 28 page paper discusses the currency devaluation and economic crisis in Russia. Possible reasons for the current dire economy are discussed as are its effects on banks, securities, and restructuring and payments of debts to both domestic and foreign sources. The budget and labor problems are also discussed. The crisis did not really begin in the summer of 1998, in fact, it began years ago. Some of the history is also provided. Brief examples of the effects of the Russian currency devaluation and payment schedule on banks outside of Russia are provided. One illustration is included. Bibliography lists 17 sources. Rusecocri.wps

Business Effect of Russia’s Lack of Infrastructure : A 5 page paper examining the lack of information management infrastructure as a factor contributing to the vastly uneven growth of the economy before its financial collapse in 1998. Many individual businesses were well equipped with the technological standards of business today, but they were concentrated in only a few major industries. All other segments of the economy did not fully share that good fortune—not only was infrastructure lacking in many areas but where it did exist there often were no qualified technical personnel to manage them. Observers believe that Russia will fare much better when the economy grows again. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Russia1.wps

The Housing Crisis In Russia : A 10 page research paper that is given in the form of a position paper on the state of housing in Russian as submitted to the Russian Minister of Social Policy, Valentina Matviyenko. The topics covered include the background to the current Russian housing shortage and how this fits into the overall picture for the Russian economic crisis. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Russhous.wps

Is Nationalism Pernicious ? : A 3 page paper that looks at the inherently pernicious nature of nationlism and the results that this has had in the now defunct Soviet Union as well as in the United States during the U.S. Civil War. In these two examples, warring factions based the development of the premise for war out of declarations of nationalism. Nationalism has led to divisions in the United States, and the breakdown of the entire political structure of the once USSR. Bibliography lists 2 sources. National.wps

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